Cognitive and Linguistic Sources of Variance in 2-Year-Olds' Speech-Sound Discrimination: A Preliminary Investigation PurposeThis preliminary investigation explored potential cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2-year-olds' speech-sound discrimination by using the toddler change/no-change procedure and examined whether modifications would result in a procedure that can be used consistently with younger 2-year-olds.MethodTwenty typically developing 2-year-olds completed the newly modified toddler change/no-change procedure. Behavioral tests ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2014
Cognitive and Linguistic Sources of Variance in 2-Year-Olds' Speech-Sound Discrimination: A Preliminary Investigation
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Kaylah Lalonde
    Indiana University, Bloomington
  • Rachael Frush Holt
    Indiana University, Bloomington
  • Disclosure:The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure:The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Kaylah Lalonde: klalonde@indiana.edu
  • Editor: Craig Champlin
    Editor: Craig Champlin×
  • Associate Editor: Emily Tobey
    Associate Editor: Emily Tobey×
Article Information
Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Hearing
Research Article   |   February 01, 2014
Cognitive and Linguistic Sources of Variance in 2-Year-Olds' Speech-Sound Discrimination: A Preliminary Investigation
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2014, Vol. 57, 308-326. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0227)
History: Received July 13, 2012 , Revised April 15, 2013 , Accepted May 23, 2013
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2014, Vol. 57, 308-326. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0227)
History: Received July 13, 2012; Revised April 15, 2013; Accepted May 23, 2013
Web of Science® Times Cited: 4

PurposeThis preliminary investigation explored potential cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2-year-olds' speech-sound discrimination by using the toddler change/no-change procedure and examined whether modifications would result in a procedure that can be used consistently with younger 2-year-olds.

MethodTwenty typically developing 2-year-olds completed the newly modified toddler change/no-change procedure. Behavioral tests and parent report questionnaires were used to measure several cognitive and linguistic constructs. Stepwise linear regression was used to relate discrimination sensitivity to the cognitive and linguistic measures. In addition, discrimination results from the current experiment were compared with those from 2-year-old children tested in a previous experiment.

ResultsReceptive vocabulary and working memory explained 56.6% of variance in discrimination performance. Performance was not different on the modified toddler change/no-change procedure used in the current experiment from in a previous investigation, which used the original version of the procedure.

ConclusionsThe relationship between speech discrimination and receptive vocabulary and working memory provides further evidence that the procedure is sensitive to the strength of perceptual representations. The role for working memory might also suggest that there are specific subject-related, nonsensory factors limiting the applicability of the procedure to children who have not reached the necessary levels of cognitive and linguistic development.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grant T32 DC00012, Indiana University's Faculty Research Support Program, and the Ronald E. McNair Research Foundation. Portions of this work were presented at the annual meeting of the American Auditory Society in Scottsdale, AZ (March 2012), and the Newborn Hearing Screening 2012 Conference in Cernobbio, Italy (June 2012). We are grateful for the comments of Tonya Bergeson on previous versions of this article.
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