Measuring Phonological Awareness in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children PurposeThis study evaluated psychometric properties of 2 phonological awareness (PA) tests normed for hearing children when used with deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. It also provides an in-depth description of these children's PA.MethodOne hundred and eight DHH children (mean age = 63.3 months) with cochlear implants or ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2014

© Georgia State University. Reprinted with permission.

Measuring Phonological Awareness in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Mi-young L. Webb
    Georgia State University, Atlanta
  • Amy R. Lederberg
    Georgia State University, Atlanta
  • Disclosure:The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure:The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Mi-young L. Webb: epemyw@gsu.edu
  • Editor and Associate Editor: Janna Oetting
    Editor and Associate Editor: Janna Oetting×
Article Information
Development / Hearing Disorders / School-Based Settings / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Language
Research Article   |   February 01, 2014
Measuring Phonological Awareness in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2014, Vol. 57, 131-142. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0106)
History: Received April 2, 2012 , Revised November 6, 2012 , Accepted May 14, 2013
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2014, Vol. 57, 131-142. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0106)
History: Received April 2, 2012; Revised November 6, 2012; Accepted May 14, 2013
Web of Science® Times Cited: 7

PurposeThis study evaluated psychometric properties of 2 phonological awareness (PA) tests normed for hearing children when used with deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. It also provides an in-depth description of these children's PA.

MethodOne hundred and eight DHH children (mean age = 63.3 months) with cochlear implants or hearing aids were assessed in the fall and spring of the school year. Sixty-three percent communicated only with spoken language; 37% communicated with both sign and speech. Examiners administered PA subtests from the Phonological Awareness Test—2 and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy, along with assessments of speech perception and early literacy.

ResultsItem analyses indicated that both tests showed good psychometric properties (e.g., high item discriminations and internal consistencies). DHH children scored higher on subtests and items that measured words, rhymes, and syllables than those that assessed phonemes. Although subtest difficulty influenced the factor structure in the fall, spring PA was best characterized as a single factor. PA correlated concurrently and predictively with early literacy.

ConclusionsThis study suggests that these 2 standardized tests are valid for use with DHH children with functional hearing. Although delayed, these children's PA was structurally similar to that of hearing children.

Acknowledgments
The research reported in this article was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through Grant R324E060035 and by a postdoctoral training program, R305A070313, to the Georgia State University Research Foundation. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the Institute or the U.S. Department of Education. We would like to thank Susan R. Easterbrooks and Carol M. Connor for their valuable comments on this article.
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