Assessment of Stigma Associated With Stuttering: Development and Evaluation of the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale (4S) PurposeTo create a psychometrically sound scale that measures different levels of internalized stigma (i.e., self-stigma) among adults who stutter and to analyze factor structure, reliability, and initial construct validity of the scale.MethodTwo-hundred ninety-one adults who stutter were recruited from Board Recognized Specialists in Fluency Disorders and the National Stuttering Association. ... Article
Article  |   October 01, 2013
Assessment of Stigma Associated With Stuttering: Development and Evaluation of the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale (4S)
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Michael P. Boyle
    The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
  • Correspondence to Michael P. Boyle, who is now at Oklahoma State University, Stillwater: michael.boyle@okstate.edu
  • Editor: Jody Kreiman
    Editor: Jody Kreiman×
  • Associate Editor: Hans-Georg Bosshardt
    Associate Editor: Hans-Georg Bosshardt×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Speech
Article   |   October 01, 2013
Assessment of Stigma Associated With Stuttering: Development and Evaluation of the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale (4S)
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2013, Vol. 56, 1517-1529. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0280)
History: Received September 1, 2012 , Revised November 28, 2012 , Accepted February 4, 2013
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2013, Vol. 56, 1517-1529. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0280)
History: Received September 1, 2012; Revised November 28, 2012; Accepted February 4, 2013
Web of Science® Times Cited: 22

PurposeTo create a psychometrically sound scale that measures different levels of internalized stigma (i.e., self-stigma) among adults who stutter and to analyze factor structure, reliability, and initial construct validity of the scale.

MethodTwo-hundred ninety-one adults who stutter were recruited from Board Recognized Specialists in Fluency Disorders and the National Stuttering Association. Participants completed a web-based survey including an experimental scale called the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale (4S), designed to measure different levels of self-stigma in people who stutter, along with a series of established measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction.

ResultsThe experimental scale demonstrated adequate reliability in internal consistency and temporal stability. Factor analysis revealed underlying components supportive of a multidimensional model of stigma. Stigma self-concurrence and, to a lesser extent, stereotype agreement and stigma awareness were negatively correlated with self-esteem, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction, supporting initial construct validity of the scale.

ConclusionSpeech-language pathologists can identify the presence of self-stigma in their adult clients who stutter and help them to alter these beliefs. The 4S can be a means for researchers and clinicians to achieve these goals.

Acknowledgments
This research was conducted as part of the author's 2012 doctoral dissertation in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders at The Pennsylvania State University. Parts of this research were presented at the 2012 annual convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association in Atlanta, GA. Special thanks to my mentor and primary advisor, Gordon Blood, for all his support, reviews, helpful feedback, and suggestions throughout this study. Thanks to committee members Ingrid Blood, Robert Prosek, and James Herbert for their reviews, suggestions, and comments. Thank you to Rodney Gabel, Kenneth St. Louis, and Robert Quesal for their reviews on an early version of the scale used in this study. Thanks to Frank Germann and Daisy Phillips for their statistical consulting. Thank you to the National Stuttering Association and the Board Recognized Specialists in Fluency Disorders who helped greatly with participant recruitment for this study. Thank you to all of the participants in this research.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access