Learning to Fail in Aphasia: An Investigation of Error Learning in Naming PurposeTo determine whether the naming impairment in aphasia is influenced by error learning and whether error learning is related to type of retrieval strategy.MethodNine participants with aphasia and 10 neurologically intact controls named familiar proper noun concepts. When experiencing tip-of-the-tongue naming failure (TOT) in an initial TOT-elicitation phase, participants were ... Article
Article  |   August 01, 2013
Learning to Fail in Aphasia: An Investigation of Error Learning in Naming
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Erica L. Middleton
    Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, Elkins Park, PA
  • Myrna F. Schwartz
    Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, Elkins Park, PA
  • Correspondence to Erica Middleton: middleer@einstein.edu
  • Editor and Associate Editor: Janna Oetting
    Editor and Associate Editor: Janna Oetting×
Article Information
Language Disorders / Aphasia / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Language
Article   |   August 01, 2013
Learning to Fail in Aphasia: An Investigation of Error Learning in Naming
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2013, Vol. 56, 1287-1297. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/12-0220)
History: Received July 9, 2012 , Revised October 9, 2012 , Accepted December 11, 2012
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2013, Vol. 56, 1287-1297. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/12-0220)
History: Received July 9, 2012; Revised October 9, 2012; Accepted December 11, 2012
Web of Science® Times Cited: 3

PurposeTo determine whether the naming impairment in aphasia is influenced by error learning and whether error learning is related to type of retrieval strategy.

MethodNine participants with aphasia and 10 neurologically intact controls named familiar proper noun concepts. When experiencing tip-of-the-tongue naming failure (TOT) in an initial TOT-elicitation phase, participants were instructed to adopt phonological or semantic self-cued retrieval strategies. In the error learning manipulation, items evoking TOT states during TOT elicitation were randomly assigned to a short or long time condition in which participants were encouraged to continue to try to retrieve the name for either 20 s (short interval) or 60 s (long). The incidence of TOT on the same items was measured on a post-test after 48 hr. Error learning was defined as a higher rate of recurrent TOTs (TOT at both TOT elicitation and post-test) for items assigned to the long (versus short) time condition.

ResultsIn the phonological condition, participants with aphasia showed error learning, whereas controls showed a pattern opposite to error learning. There was no evidence for error learning in the semantic condition for either group.

ConclusionError learning is operative in aphasia but is dependent on the type of strategy used during naming failure.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by a grant from the Albert Einstein Society (Einstein Healthcare Network, Philadelphia, PA), awarded to the first author; National Institutes of Health Research Grant RO1- DC000191, awarded to the second author; and National Institutes of Health Training Grant T32-HD007425. A portion of this work was presented at the 48th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Aphasia (Athens, Greece) in October 2010). We thank Karen Roy and Rachel Jacobson for data collection and management; Adelyn Brecher, Anne Mecklenburg, Kelly Garvey, Maureen Gagliardi, and Jennifer Gallagher for data transcription and coding; all members of the Language and Aphasia Lab, Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, for their feedback throughout the development of this project; and Karin Humphreys for helpful discussions at the inception of the project.
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