Tongue–Palate Contact Pressure, Oral Air Pressure, and Acoustics of Clear Speech PurposeThe authors compared articulatory contact pressure (ACP), oral air pressure (Po), and speech acoustics for conversational versus clear speech. They also assessed the relationship of these measures to listener perception.MethodTwelve adults with normal speech produced monosyllables in a phrase using conversational and clear speech. Target phonemes were /t, d, s, ... Article
Article  |   June 01, 2013
Tongue–Palate Contact Pressure, Oral Air Pressure, and Acoustics of Clear Speech
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Jeff Searl
    Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH
  • Paul M. Evitts
    Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH
  • Paul M. Evitts is now affiliated with the Department of Audiology, Speech-Language Pathology and Deaf Studies, Towson University, Towson, MD.
    Paul M. Evitts is now affiliated with the Department of Audiology, Speech-Language Pathology and Deaf Studies, Towson University, Towson, MD.×
  • Correspondence to Jeff Searl: who is now affiliated with the Hearing and Speech Department, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, jsearl@kumc.edu
  • Editor: Jody Kreiman
    Editor: Jody Kreiman×
  • Associate Editor: Kate Bunton
    Associate Editor: Kate Bunton×
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Acoustics / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech
Article   |   June 01, 2013
Tongue–Palate Contact Pressure, Oral Air Pressure, and Acoustics of Clear Speech
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2013, Vol. 56, 826-839. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0337)
History: Received December 7, 2011 , Revised May 1, 2012 , Accepted September 4, 2012
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2013, Vol. 56, 826-839. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0337)
History: Received December 7, 2011; Revised May 1, 2012; Accepted September 4, 2012
Web of Science® Times Cited: 7

PurposeThe authors compared articulatory contact pressure (ACP), oral air pressure (Po), and speech acoustics for conversational versus clear speech. They also assessed the relationship of these measures to listener perception.

MethodTwelve adults with normal speech produced monosyllables in a phrase using conversational and clear speech. Target phonemes were /t, d, s, z, l, n/. ACP was measured at a point of articulatory contact; Po was sensed by a catheter open in the posterior oral cavity.

ResultsACP was increased to a greater extent in clear speech for /t, d, z/. Po was increased to a greater extent for /t, d/. Acoustic changes also occurred in terms of segment durations, speaking rate, and CV dB ratio. Regression analysis indicated that segment duration was the strongest predictor of listener ratings of speech clarity, followed by an index of articulatory effort and speaking rate.

ConclusionArticulatory effort, as indexed by ACP, Po, and CV dB ratio, was increased to varying degrees depending on the consonant. Greatest changes occurred for /t, d/. Durational measures at both the segment and the phrase level were also important for predicting listener ratings of speech clarity.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported, in part, by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grant R03 DC004960-03. A portion of this work was presented at the 2005 Annual Convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, San Diego, CA. We are grateful for the assistance provided by William J. Davis, who made dental castings for this study.
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