Profiles of Verbal Working Memory Growth Predict Speech and Language Development in Children With Cochlear Implants PurposeVerbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) skills predict speech and language outcomes in children with cochlear implants (CIs) even after conventional demographic, device, and medical factors are taken into account. However, prior research has focused on single end point outcomes as opposed to the longitudinal process of development ... Article
Article  |   June 01, 2013
Profiles of Verbal Working Memory Growth Predict Speech and Language Development in Children With Cochlear Implants
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • William G. Kronenberger
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis
  • David B. Pisoni
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis
  • Michael S. Harris
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis
  • Helena M. Hoen
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis
  • Huiping Xu
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis
  • Richard T. Miyamoto
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis
  • Correspondence to William G. Kronenberger: wkronenb@iupui.edu
  • Editor: Sid Bacon
    Editor: Sid Bacon×
  • Associate Editor: Emily Tobey
    Associate Editor: Emily Tobey×
Article Information
Development / Hearing Disorders / Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Assistive Technology / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Hearing
Article   |   June 01, 2013
Profiles of Verbal Working Memory Growth Predict Speech and Language Development in Children With Cochlear Implants
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2013, Vol. 56, 805-825. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0356)
History: Received December 27, 2011 , Accepted October 10, 2012
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2013, Vol. 56, 805-825. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0356)
History: Received December 27, 2011; Accepted October 10, 2012
Web of Science® Times Cited: 9

PurposeVerbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) skills predict speech and language outcomes in children with cochlear implants (CIs) even after conventional demographic, device, and medical factors are taken into account. However, prior research has focused on single end point outcomes as opposed to the longitudinal process of development of verbal STM/WM and speech-language skills. In this study, the authors investigated relations between profiles of verbal STM/WM development and speech-language development over time.

MethodProfiles of verbal STM/WM development were identified through the use of group-based trajectory analysis of repeated digit span measures over at least a 2-year time period in a sample of 66 children (ages 6–16 years) with CIs. Subjects also completed repeated assessments of speech and language skills during the same time period.

ResultsClusters representing different patterns of development of verbal STM (digit span forward scores) were related to the growth rate of vocabulary and language comprehension skills over time. Clusters representing different patterns of development of verbal WM (digit span backward scores) were related to the growth rate of vocabulary and spoken word recognition skills over time.

ConclusionDifferent patterns of development of verbal STM/WM capacity predict the dynamic process of development of speech and language skills in this clinical population.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grants DC009581 and DC000064.
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