Beyond Decoding: Adults With Dyslexia Have Trouble Forming Unified Lexical Representations Across Pseudoword Learning Episodes PurposeTo examine how adults with dyslexia versus adults with typical reading form lexical representations during pseudoword learning.MethodTwenty adults with dyslexia and 20 adults with typical reading learned meanings, spellings, and pronunciations of 16 pictured pseudowords, (half with regular and half with irregular grapheme-phoneme correspondences) presented first in 1 modality (spoken ... Article
Article  |   June 01, 2013
Beyond Decoding: Adults With Dyslexia Have Trouble Forming Unified Lexical Representations Across Pseudoword Learning Episodes
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Karole A. Howland
    Boston University, Boston, MA
  • Jacqueline Liederman
    Boston University, Boston, MA
  • Correspondence to Karole A. Howland: khowland@bu.edu
  • Editor and Associate Editor: Janna Oetting
    Editor and Associate Editor: Janna Oetting×
Article Information
Special Populations / Genetic & Congenital Disorders / Normal Language Processing / Language Disorders / Reading & Writing Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Language
Article   |   June 01, 2013
Beyond Decoding: Adults With Dyslexia Have Trouble Forming Unified Lexical Representations Across Pseudoword Learning Episodes
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2013, Vol. 56, 1009-1022. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0252)
History: Received September 12, 2011 , Revised April 7, 2012 , Accepted October 24, 2012
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2013, Vol. 56, 1009-1022. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0252)
History: Received September 12, 2011; Revised April 7, 2012; Accepted October 24, 2012

PurposeTo examine how adults with dyslexia versus adults with typical reading form lexical representations during pseudoword learning.

MethodTwenty adults with dyslexia and 20 adults with typical reading learned meanings, spellings, and pronunciations of 16 pictured pseudowords, (half with regular and half with irregular grapheme-phoneme correspondences) presented first in 1 modality (spoken or written) and then the 2nd modality. Dependent measures included picture naming and identification, episodic recognition, a rhyme task, and a categorization task.

ResultsAdults with dyslexia learned pseudowords more slowly than those with typical reading and were disproportionately poor in learning irregularly spelled pseudowords after changing from written to spoken modality. Adults with dyslexia recognized fewer pseudoword forms than adults with typical reading and verified fewer pseudoword rhymes. Adults with typical reading were more accurate with categorizing regular versus irregular pseudowords. Adults with dyslexia did not show this regularity advantage.

ConclusionsAdults with dyslexia, compared with adults with typical reading, failed to (a) encode and retrieve detailed information about pseudoword forms, (b) efficiently form cross-modal associations between written and spoken encounters with pseudowords, and (c) effectively modify their representations following the change in modality. The authors discuss implications relative to common theories of dyslexia.

Acknowledgments
This study was funded in part by CELEST, an NSF Science of Learning Center (Grant SBE-0354378, awarded to the second author). Data in this article were previously published as a doctoral dissertation by Karole A. Howland at Boston University in May 2009. Portions of the data were presented at the International Neuropsychology Society Conference in Atlanta, Georgia, in February 2009, and at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in November 2010. We thank Holly Storkel and colleagues for generously sharing their story stimuli, Jeffry Coady and David Caplan for their insightful suggestions, and Beth Baribault for her careful comments and proofreading.
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