The Effects of Data Reduction in Determining the Schedule of Voicing Acquisition in Young Children Purpose In this study, multiple measures of voicing acquisition were used to evaluate the extent to which developmental patterns based on voice onset time (VOT) mean data differed from those based on token-by-token analyses in typically developing 2-year-olds. Method Multiple repetitions of words containing initial /b p d ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 01, 2013
The Effects of Data Reduction in Determining the Schedule of Voicing Acquisition in Young Children
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Elaine R. Hitchcock
    Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ
  • Laura L. Koenig
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
    Long Island University—Brooklyn, NY
  • Correspondence to Elaine R. Hitchcock: hitchcocke@mail.montclair.edu
  • Editor: Anne Smith
    Editor: Anne Smith×
  • Associate Editor: Karen Forrest
    Associate Editor: Karen Forrest×
Article Information
Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 01, 2013
The Effects of Data Reduction in Determining the Schedule of Voicing Acquisition in Young Children
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2013, Vol. 56, 441-457. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0175)
History: Received July 7, 2011 , Revised January 20, 2012 , Accepted July 15, 2012
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2013, Vol. 56, 441-457. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0175)
History: Received July 7, 2011; Revised January 20, 2012; Accepted July 15, 2012
Web of Science® Times Cited: 5

Purpose In this study, multiple measures of voicing acquisition were used to evaluate the extent to which developmental patterns based on voice onset time (VOT) mean data differed from those based on token-by-token analyses in typically developing 2-year-olds.

Method Multiple repetitions of words containing initial /b p d t/ were elicited from 10 English-speaking children biweekly for 4 months. VOT was measured for each stop. For each child, consonant, and recording session, means and ranges were obtained, as were measures of accuracy, discreteness, and overshoot calculated for session means and for individual tokens.

Results The token-by-token analyses suggested lower accuracy and more category overlap than the session means and revealed an overshoot phase for all children. They also showed examples of both abrupt and gradual changes that were not always evident in the means. Measures of range, accuracy, discreteness, and overshoot all continued to change after statistically significant VOT differences were observed.

Conclusions The findings suggest that some aspects of voicing development may not be evident in analyses that rely on VOT mean data and patterns of statistical significance. Token-by-token measures provide a more complete picture of stages of voicing development than those based solely on mean VOT values.

Acknowledgments
Preliminary portions of this work were presented at the 147th meeting of the Acoustical Society of America (New York City, 2004). This research was completed as part of a doctoral dissertation by the first author at New York University in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology directed by Harriet Klein. We gratefully acknowledge Harriet Klein, Nassima Abdelli Beruh, Joseph Attanasio, Jonathan Preston, Julia Irwin, and Tara McAllister Byun for their comments on earlier versions of this work. We would also like to thank Bruce Diamante, Paul Arcell, and Tom Deutsch of Kay Pentax for their technical support; Stephanie Klopfer for her assistance with statistical analysis; and Heidi Fuld, Kathryn Galbraith, Elina Izbinsky, and Lindsey Syvertsen for assistance with data management. Finally, this work would have not been possible without the 10 children and their families who volunteered to be part of the study.
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