Speechreading Development in Deaf and Hearing Children: Introducing the Test of Child Speechreading Purpose In this article, the authors describe the development of a new instrument, the Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS), which was specifically designed for use with deaf and hearing children. Speechreading is a skill that is required for deaf children to access the language of the hearing community. ToCS is ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 01, 2013
Speechreading Development in Deaf and Hearing Children: Introducing the Test of Child Speechreading
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Fiona E. Kyle
    University College London, United Kingdom
  • Ruth Campbell
    University College London, United Kingdom
  • Tara Mohammed
    University College London, United Kingdom
  • Mike Coleman
    University College London, United Kingdom
  • Mairéad MacSweeney
    University College London, United Kingdom
  • Correspondence to Fiona E. Kyle: who is now affiliated with the Department of Psychology, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, United Kingdom, fiona.kyle@beds.ac.uk
  • Editor: Jody Kreiman
    Editor: Jody Kreiman×
  • Associate Editor: Barbara Dodd
    Associate Editor: Barbara Dodd×
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Hearing Disorders / Audiologic / Aural Rehabilitation / Hearing / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 01, 2013
Speechreading Development in Deaf and Hearing Children: Introducing the Test of Child Speechreading
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2013, Vol. 56, 416-426. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/12-0039)
History: Received January 28, 2012 , Accepted July 18, 2012
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2013, Vol. 56, 416-426. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/12-0039)
History: Received January 28, 2012; Accepted July 18, 2012
Web of Science® Times Cited: 14

Purpose In this article, the authors describe the development of a new instrument, the Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS), which was specifically designed for use with deaf and hearing children. Speechreading is a skill that is required for deaf children to access the language of the hearing community. ToCS is a deaf-friendly, computer-based test that measures child speechreading (silent lipreading) at 3 psycholinguistic levels: (a) Words, (b) Sentences, and (c) Short Stories. The aims of the study were to standardize the ToCS with deaf and hearing children and to investigate the effects of hearing status, age, and linguistic complexity on speechreading ability.

Method Eighty-six severely and profoundly deaf children and 91 hearing children participated. All children were between the ages of 5 and 14 years. The deaf children were from a range of language and communication backgrounds, and their preferred mode of communication varied.

Results Speechreading skills significantly improved with age for both groups of children. There was no effect of hearing status on speechreading ability, and children from both groups showed similar performance across all subtests of the ToCS.

Conclusion The ToCS is a valid and reliable assessment of speechreading ability in school-age children that can be used to measure individual differences in performance in speechreading ability.

Acknowledgments
We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). The work was part of the program of ESRC Deafness Cognition and Language Research Centre (DCAL) Grant RES 620-28-0002. The last author is currently supported by a Wellcome Trust Career Development Fellowship. We thank all the children, their teachers, and schools for taking part in this study.
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