Assessing Multimodal Spoken Word-in-Sentence Recognition in Children With Normal Hearing and Children With Cochlear Implants PurposeTo examine multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children.MethodTwo experiments were undertaken. In Experiment 1, the youngest age with which the multimodal sentence recognition materials could be used was evaluated. In Experiment 2, lexical difficulty and presentation modality effects were examined, along with test–retest reliability and validity in normal-hearing children and ... Article
Article  |   April 01, 2011
Assessing Multimodal Spoken Word-in-Sentence Recognition in Children With Normal Hearing and Children With Cochlear Implants
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Rachael Frush Holt
    Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
    Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
  • Karen Iler Kirk
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Marcia Hay-McCutcheon
    DeVault Otologic Research Laboratory, Indiana University School of Medicine
    DeVault Otologic Research Laboratory, Indiana University School of Medicine
  • Correspondence to Rachael Frush Holt: raholt@indiana.edu
  • Karen Iler Kirk is now with the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Iowa, and the Wendell Johnson Speech and Hearing Center, Iowa City. Marcia Hay-McCutcheon is now with the Department of Communicative Disorders, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa.
    Karen Iler Kirk is now with the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Iowa, and the Wendell Johnson Speech and Hearing Center, Iowa City. Marcia Hay-McCutcheon is now with the Department of Communicative Disorders, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa.×
  • Editor: Robert Schlauch
    Editor: Robert Schlauch×
  • Associate Editor: Jill Preminger
    Associate Editor: Jill Preminger×
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Hearing Disorders / Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Assistive Technology / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Hearing
Article   |   April 01, 2011
Assessing Multimodal Spoken Word-in-Sentence Recognition in Children With Normal Hearing and Children With Cochlear Implants
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2011, Vol. 54, 632-657. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2010/09-0148)
History: Received July 23, 2009 , Revised March 27, 2010 , Accepted July 12, 2010
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2011, Vol. 54, 632-657. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2010/09-0148)
History: Received July 23, 2009; Revised March 27, 2010; Accepted July 12, 2010
Web of Science® Times Cited: 12

PurposeTo examine multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children.

MethodTwo experiments were undertaken. In Experiment 1, the youngest age with which the multimodal sentence recognition materials could be used was evaluated. In Experiment 2, lexical difficulty and presentation modality effects were examined, along with test–retest reliability and validity in normal-hearing children and those with cochlear implants.

ResultsNormal-hearing children as young as 3.25 years and those with cochlear implants just under 4 years who have used their device for at least 1 year were able to complete the multimodal sentence testing. Both groups identified lexically easy words in sentences more accurately than lexically hard words across modalities, although the largest effects occurred in the auditory-only modality. Both groups displayed audiovisual integration with the highest scores achieved in the audiovisual modality, followed sequentially by auditory-only and visual-only modalities. Recognition of words in sentences was correlated with recognition of words in isolation. Preliminary results suggest fair-to-good test–retest reliability.

ConclusionsThe results suggest that children’s audiovisual word-in-sentence recognition can be assessed using the materials developed for this investigation. With further development, the materials hold promise for becoming a test of multimodal sentence recognition for children with hearing loss.

Acknowledgments
This work was funded by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation, the American Hearing Research Foundation, and the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grants T32 DC00012, R01 DC00064, and 5R01 DC008875. Portions of this work were presented at the fall meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Minneapolis, MN (October 2005); the annual meeting of the American-Speech-Language-Hearing Association, San Diego, CA (November 2005); the 11th International Conference on Cochlear Implants in Children, Charlotte, NC (April 2007); and the 2008 Newborn Hearing Screening Conference, Cernobbio, Italy (June 2008).
We appreciate the contributions of Amy Martinez for making the stimulus-shaped noise; Elicia Roos, Meredith Newman, Lisa Burkhartzmeyer, Lindsay Mitchell Fletcher, Stacy Howell, Bea Smith, Andrea Moore, Katie Wallace, Charis Fong, Tricia Ray, Spencer Smith, Kathy Carbonell, Shirley Henning, and Bethany Gehrlein Colson for assisting in data collection; and Tessa Bent and Luis Hernandez for their contributions to the color correction portion of the investigation.
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