Looking While Listening and Speaking Eye-To-Face Gaze in Adolescents With and Without Traumatic Brain Injury Research Article
Research Article  |   December 01, 2005
Looking While Listening and Speaking
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Lyn S. Turkstra
    University of Wisconsin—Madison
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: lsturkstra@wisc.edu
Article Information
Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Traumatic Brain Injury / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   December 01, 2005
Looking While Listening and Speaking
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2005, Vol. 48, 1429-1441. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2005/099)
History: Received June 9, 2004 , Revised February 23, 2005 , Accepted April 7, 2005
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2005, Vol. 48, 1429-1441. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2005/099)
History: Received June 9, 2004; Revised February 23, 2005; Accepted April 7, 2005
Web of Science® Times Cited: 8

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to address the lack of quantitative data on eye-to-face gaze (also known as eye contact) in the literature on pragmatic communication. The study focused on adolescents and young adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI), as gaze often is included in social skills intervention in this population.

Method: Gaze times were calculated for participants with TBI (n = 16) and their typically developing (TD) peers (n = 16) engaged in 3-min extemporaneous conversations.

Results: The TD group members looked at the face of their conversation partner an average of 62% of the time while listening and 43% of the time while speaking, versus 67% and 51%, respectively, for the TBI group. There were no significant between-groups differences in average gaze times, but the within-group variability was significantly greater in the TBI group.

Implications: As there was no evidence of a uniform trend in gaze times among participants with TBI, general intervention to increase eye contact does not appear warranted. Instead, goals must consider that gaze is a highly complex behavior, not necessarily indicative of attention to one's partner, and that there are potential reasons for gaze aversion in individuals with cognitive limitations.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by Grant DC-00163 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. I thank Joelle DiPadova for her assistance with gaze measurement, Eric Youngstrom for the use of the Observer system, and the many participants and students who collaborated on data collection and analysis.
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