The Effect of Age at Cochlear Implant Initial Stimulation on Expressive Language Growth in Infants and Toddlers This study examined the growth of expressive language skills in children who received cochlear implants (CIs) in infancy. Repeated language measures were gathered from 29 children who received CIs between 10 and 40 months of age. Both cross-sectional and growth curve analyses were used to assess the relationship between expressive ... Research Article
Research Article  |   August 2005
The Effect of Age at Cochlear Implant Initial Stimulation on Expressive Language Growth in Infants and Toddlers
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • J. Bruce Tomblin
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Brittan A. Barker
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Linda J. Spencer
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Xuyang Zhang
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Bruce J. Gantz
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: j-tomblin@uiowa.edu
Article Information
Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Assistive Technology / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   August 2005
The Effect of Age at Cochlear Implant Initial Stimulation on Expressive Language Growth in Infants and Toddlers
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2005, Vol. 48, 853-867. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2005/059)
History: Received April 12, 2004 , Revised September 14, 2004 , Accepted December 20, 2004
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2005, Vol. 48, 853-867. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2005/059)
History: Received April 12, 2004; Revised September 14, 2004; Accepted December 20, 2004

This study examined the growth of expressive language skills in children who received cochlear implants (CIs) in infancy. Repeated language measures were gathered from 29 children who received CIs between 10 and 40 months of age. Both cross-sectional and growth curve analyses were used to assess the relationship between expressive language outcomes and CI experience. A beneficial effect of earlier implantation on expressive language growth was found. Growth curve analysis showed that growth was more rapid in children implanted as infants than those implanted as toddlers. Age at initial stimulation accounted for 14.6% of the variance of the individual differences in expressive language growth rates.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported in part by Research Grant 2 P50 DC00242 from the National Institutes on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; by Grant RR00059 from the General Clinical Research Centers Program, Division of Research Resources, National Institutes of Health; by the Lions Clubs International Foundation; and by the Iowa Lions Foundation. We would like to thank Jillian K. Evans, Courtney M. Smith, Meaghan McCavitt, Cynthia J. Bergan, Victoria C. Klein, and Elon Parker for their help with scoring the MCDI and PLS—3 test items. We would also like to thank all of the infants and their families who have volunteered so much of their time to the University of Iowa Children’s Cochlear Implant Program.
Portions of this article were presented at the 23rd Annual Symposium on Research in Child Language Disorders, Madison, WI, July 2002, and at the 7th International Cochlear Implant Conference, Manchester, England, September 2002.
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