The Haskins Optically Corrected Ultrasound System (HOCUS) The tongue is critical in the production of speech, yet its nature has made it difficult to measure. Not only does its ability to attain complex shapes make it difficult to track, it is also largely hidden from view during speech. The present article describes a new combination of optical ... Tutorial
Tutorial  |   June 01, 2005
The Haskins Optically Corrected Ultrasound System (HOCUS)
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • D. H. Whalen
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • Khalil Iskarous
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • Mark K. Tiede
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
  • David J. Ostry
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT, and McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  • Heike Lehnert-LeHouillier
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT, and University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY
  • Eric Vatikiotis-Bateson
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • Donald S. Hailey
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • Contact author: D. H. Whalen, Haskins Laboratories, 300 George Street, New Haven, CT 06511. E-mail: whalen@haskins.yale.edu
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Tutorial
Tutorial   |   June 01, 2005
The Haskins Optically Corrected Ultrasound System (HOCUS)
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2005, Vol. 48, 543-553. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2005/037)
History: Received May 8, 2004 , Accepted October 22, 2004
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2005, Vol. 48, 543-553. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2005/037)
History: Received May 8, 2004; Accepted October 22, 2004
Web of Science® Times Cited: 25

The tongue is critical in the production of speech, yet its nature has made it difficult to measure. Not only does its ability to attain complex shapes make it difficult to track, it is also largely hidden from view during speech. The present article describes a new combination of optical tracking and ultrasound imaging that allows for a noninvasive, real-time view of most of the tongue surface during running speech. The optical system (Optotrak) tracks the location of external structures in 3-dimensional space using infrared emitting diodes (IREDs). By tracking 3 or more IREDs on the head and a similar number on an ultrasound transceiver, the transduced image of the tongue can be corrected for the motion of both the head and the transceiver and thus be represented relative to the hard structures of the vocal tract. If structural magnetic resonance images of the speaker are available, they may allow the estimation of the location of the rear pharyngeal wall as well. This new technique is contrasted with other currently available options for imaging the tongue. It promises to provide high-quality, relatively low-cost imaging of most of the tongue surface during fairly unconstrained speech.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant DC-02717 to Haskins Laboratories. We thank the contribution of the ATR Human Information Processing Research Laboratories to the base routines for the rigid body reconstruction. We thank Vince Gracco and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments.
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