Age 13 Language and Reading Outcomes in Late-Talking Toddlers Language and reading outcomes at 13 years of age were examined in 28 children identified at 24 to 31 months as late talkers, all of whom came from middle- to upper-class socioeconomic status (SES) families and had normal nonverbal ability and age-adequate receptive language at intake. Late talkers were compared ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 01, 2005
Age 13 Language and Reading Outcomes in Late-Talking Toddlers
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Leslie Rescorla
    Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, PA
  • Contact author: Leslie Rescorla, Department of Psychology, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Avenue, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010. E-mail: lrescorl@brynmawr.edu
Article Information
Development / Special Populations / Language Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 01, 2005
Age 13 Language and Reading Outcomes in Late-Talking Toddlers
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2005, Vol. 48, 459-472. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2005/031)
History: Received July 15, 2003 , Revised June 26, 2004 , Accepted August 5, 2005
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2005, Vol. 48, 459-472. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2005/031)
History: Received July 15, 2003; Revised June 26, 2004; Accepted August 5, 2005
Web of Science® Times Cited: 56

Language and reading outcomes at 13 years of age were examined in 28 children identified at 24 to 31 months as late talkers, all of whom came from middle- to upper-class socioeconomic status (SES) families and had normal nonverbal ability and age-adequate receptive language at intake. Late talkers were compared with a group of 25 typically developing children matched at intake on age, SES, and nonverbal ability. As a group, late talkers performed in the average range on all standardized language and reading tasks at age 13. However, they scored significantly lower than SES-matched peers on aggregate measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal memory, as well as on reading comprehension. They were similar to comparison peers in reading mechanics and writing aggregates. Intercorrelations between outcome measures were moderately high, suggesting considerable shared variance. Regression analyses indicated that age 2 Language Development Survey vocabulary score was a significant predictor of age 13 vocabulary, grammar, verbal memory, and reading comprehension. Findings suggest that slow language development at age 2–1/2 is associated with a weakness in language-related skills into adolescence relative to typically developing peers.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by grants to Leslie Rescorla from the Bryn Mawr College Faculty Research Fund and from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Grant 1-R15-HD22355-01 and National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grant R01-DC00807. I wish to thank the parents and children whose participation made this research possible.
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