Errata: The Development of Auditory Feedback Monitoring: Delayed Auditory Feedback Studies on the Vocalizations of Children Aged Six Months to 19 Months In the December 1973 issue, the article by N. Fargo Belmore, Diane Kewley-Port, Richard L. Mobley, and Violet E. Goodman, “The Development of Auditory Feedback Monitoring: Delayed Auditory Feedback Studies on the Vocalizations of Children Aged Six Months to 19 Months,” contains the following errors. Page 709, abstract, line six, ... Erratum
Erratum  |   September 01, 1975
Errata: The Development of Auditory Feedback Monitoring: Delayed Auditory Feedback Studies on the Vocalizations of Children Aged Six Months to 19 Months
 
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Erratum
Erratum   |   September 01, 1975
Errata: The Development of Auditory Feedback Monitoring: Delayed Auditory Feedback Studies on the Vocalizations of Children Aged Six Months to 19 Months
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, September 1975, Vol. 18, 606-607. doi:10.1044/jshr.1803.606
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, September 1975, Vol. 18, 606-607. doi:10.1044/jshr.1803.606

In the December 1973 issue, the article by N. Fargo Belmore, Diane Kewley-Port, Richard L. Mobley, and Violet E. Goodman, “The Development of Auditory Feedback Monitoring: Delayed Auditory Feedback Studies on the Vocalizations of Children Aged Six Months to 19 Months,” contains the following errors.

Page 709, abstract, line six, p < 0.10 should read p ≤ 0.10.

Page 714, insert immediately following paragraph four: Two measurements were taken of each vocalization unit, duration in mm (30 mm = 1 sec) and peak SPL in dB, which was subsequently converted to a power ratio.

Page 714, paragraph five, line two, replace the words correlation ratio with ŋ2 and SPL with ratios of SPLs, and the remaining sentences with the following: F-ratios were then calculated (Freeman, 1965) and from them p values were determined. Table 1 gives mean ŋ2 and p values for both duration and ratios of SPLs.

Page 716, replace paragraphs five and six with the following;

To estimate the likelihood of a relation between significant DAF effects and either test sequence, sex, age, or language development, the Fisher exact probability test was used. For test sequence and sex, a nondirectional hypothesis was made; for age and language development, in view of past experiments, a directional hypothesis.

Language development alone appeared to have predictive value. When the use of words during the experimental session was used as a classifier (LD1, LD2 vs LD3), the value p = 0.0769 was obtained for ratios of SPLs. The proportion of significant effects in the three groups was 1/10, 2/10, and 4/8. When the use of words and/or vocalization units with the phonetic structure commonly observed in children’s first words was used (LD1 vs LD2, LD3) the value p = 0.0758 was obtained for duration. Here the proportions were 2/10, 6/10, and 4/8. The test was made on both dichotomies, since both seemed equally well motivated. Age, implicated previously, proved irrelevant (p = 0.4354 for duration and 0.6587 for ratios of SPLs clearly also both sex and test sequence (p = 0.80 in all cases).

Page 717, remove the sentence in line three beginning “It was only …”

Page 719, insert the following in paragraph two, line six, immediately before the word Probably:

Waters (1968) also indicates that language ability may be a significant factor. He hypothesizes that level of speech development, as measured by precision of articulation, is related to speech performance under DAF. As a child’s articulatory skill gradually increases, so also does the magnitude of DAF effects. At some point, however, (probably between six and nine years), articulatory precision no longer increases, and from thereon DAF effects may be expected to decrease. As he points out, this could explain the apparent discrepancy between Chase et al. (1961) and Ratner et al. (1964).

Page 720, insert after the reference to Smalley, W. A.:

Waters, Jerry E., A theoretical and developmental investigation of delayed speech feedback. Genetic Psych. Monographs, 78, 3–54 (1968).

Page 715, the table legend should read: Comparison of simultaneous (SAF) and delayed (DAF) auditory feedback on two measures of vocal performance, mean duration and mean peak intensity, ŋ2, the percent of the variance attributable to test condition, is given for duration and intensity, as well as the obtained significance levels.

Page 715, the table should read as follows:

Subject Code Sex Language Development Age (months, days) Number of Responses Mean Duration (msec) per Vocalization ŋ2 p≤ Mean Intensity (Peak SPL, dB) p≤ SAF DAF SAF DAF SAF DAF ŋ2 B01 F 1 10,14 99 104 324 325 0.00 N.S. 33.0 32.0 0.14 N.S. B03 M 1 6,24 80 90 320 315 0.01 N.S. 35.8 37.3 1.00 N.S. B04 F 2 10,12 40 51 312 233 3.24 0.10 34.4 32.1 1.21 N.S. B06 F 1 8,00 98 108 394 464 1.00 N.S. 27.0 27.7 0.36 N.S. B07 F 1 9,14 98 129 334 329 0.01 N.S. 36.4 35.8 0.16 N.S. B10 m 1 9,26 61 76 554 386 6.25 0.01 37.7 35.4 2.56 0.10 B11 m 1 7,21 66 59 469 574 1.44 N.S. 35.4 36.2 0.81 N.S. B12 F 2 8,01 45 27 253 425 11.56 0.01 35.0 32.5 5.76 0.05 B13 F 1 7,20 29 34 235 232 0.00 N.S. 30.3 30.4 0.00 N.S. B14 M 2 9,10 37 44 904 666 4.84 0.05 32.4 30.7 2.25 N.S. B15 F 1 6,17 154 27 1031 765 1.21 N.S. 37.5 35.0 1.00 N.S. W02 F 1 13,22 68 111 277 283 0.01 N.S. 21.5 28.3 0.25 N.S. W03 m 2 15,20 89 62 373 275 4.00 0.05 32.2 31.3 0.16 N.S. W04 F 3 14,20 53 39 575 489 0.04 N.S. 33.0 33.8 0.36 N.S. W05 F 3 18,22 80 67 540 493 0.36 N.S. 32.7 33.4 0.25 N.S. W06 M 2 12,26 90 83 365 295 2.25 0.05 41.7 41.1 0.16 N.S. W07 F 3 16,13 20 72 664 362 19.36 0.001 39.1 36.4 7.84 0.01 W09 M 3 19,04 46 28 387 269 8.41 0.05 27.8 24.8 5.76 0.05 W10 F 2 15,17 193 208 327 343 0.09 N.S. 35.8 36.1 0.04 N.S. W11 M 2 16,12 164 208 295 249 1.21 0.05 35.3 37.5 1.44 0.05 W12 F 1 13,13 35 33 438 293 9.00 0.05 43.5 44.3 1.00 N.S. W14 M 3 16,15 46 69 465 457 0.01 N.S. 36.8 34.4 2.56 0.10 W15 F 3 18,02 106 98 381 310 1.96 0.10 33.9 33.6 0.04 N.S. W16 M 2 18,02 76 77 273 276 0.01 N.S. 38.9 39.6 0.04 N.S. W19 F 3 16,16 118 78 448 602 4.41 0.01 34.2 38.4 9.00 0.001 W20 M 2 14,00 38 52 434 408 0.16 N.S. 30.0 30.9 0.25 N.S. W22 M 3 18,13 77 55 289 270 0.16 N.S. 35.5 36.9 0.14 N.S. W23 M 2 12,14 26 25 330 438 2.25 N.S. 31.1 31.0 0.00 N.S.

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