Speech Planning Happens Before Speech Execution: Online Reaction Time Methods in the Study of Apraxia of Speech PurposeThe purpose of this article is to present an argument for the use of online reaction time (RT) methods to the study of apraxia of speech (AOS) and to review the existing small literature in this area and the contributions it has made to our fundamental understanding of speech planning ... Supplement: Apraxia of Speech: Concepts and Controversies
Supplement: Apraxia of Speech: Concepts and Controversies  |   October 01, 2012
Speech Planning Happens Before Speech Execution: Online Reaction Time Methods in the Study of Apraxia of Speech
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Edwin Maas
    University of Arizona, Tucson
  • Marja-Liisa Mailend
    University of Arizona, Tucson
  • Correspondence to Edwin Maas: emaas@email.arizona.edu
  • Editor: Anne Smith
    Editor: Anne Smith×
  • Associate Editor: Wolfram Ziegler
    Associate Editor: Wolfram Ziegler×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Apraxia of Speech & Childhood Apraxia of Speech / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech
Supplement: Apraxia of Speech: Concepts and Controversies   |   October 01, 2012
Speech Planning Happens Before Speech Execution: Online Reaction Time Methods in the Study of Apraxia of Speech
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2012, Vol. 55, S1523-S1534. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0311)
History: Received April 5, 2012 , Accepted May 20, 2012
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2012, Vol. 55, S1523-S1534. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0311)
History: Received April 5, 2012; Accepted May 20, 2012
Web of Science® Times Cited: 7

PurposeThe purpose of this article is to present an argument for the use of online reaction time (RT) methods to the study of apraxia of speech (AOS) and to review the existing small literature in this area and the contributions it has made to our fundamental understanding of speech planning (deficits) in AOS.

MethodFollowing a brief description of limitations of offline perceptual methods, we provide a narrative review of various types of RT paradigms from the (speech) motor programming and psycholinguistic literatures and their (thus far limited) application with AOS.

ConclusionOn the basis of the review of the literature, we conclude that with careful consideration of potential challenges and caveats, RT approaches hold great promise to advance our understanding of AOS, in particular with respect to the speech planning processes that generate the speech signal before initiation. A deeper understanding of the nature and time course of speech planning and its disruptions in AOS may enhance diagnosis and treatment for AOS.

ResultsOnly a handful of published studies on apraxia of speech have used reaction time methods. However, these studies have provided deeper insight into speech planning impairments in AOS based on a variety of experimental paradigms.

Acknowledgments
This article originated from a presentation given at the “Apraxia of Speech: Mechanisms and Symptoms” satellite workshop during the 6th International Conference on Speech Motor Control in Groningen, the Netherlands, June 2011.
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