Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models With Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties PurposeThe purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F0) during anterior–posterior stretching.MethodThree materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm in ... Article
Article  |   October 01, 2012
Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models With Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Stephanie M. Shaw
    Brigham Young University, Provo, UT
  • Scott L. Thomson
    Brigham Young University, Provo, UT
  • Christopher Dromey
    Brigham Young University, Provo, UT
  • Simeon Smith
    Brigham Young University, Provo, UT
  • Correspondence to Scott L. Thomson: thomson@byu.edu
  • Stephanie M. Shaw is now affiliated with the Department of Speech-Language Pathology at the University of Toronto.
    Stephanie M. Shaw is now affiliated with the Department of Speech-Language Pathology at the University of Toronto.×
  • Editor: Anne Smith
    Editor: Anne Smith×
  • Associate Editor: Jack Jiang
    Associate Editor: Jack Jiang×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech
Article   |   October 01, 2012
Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models With Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2012, Vol. 55, 1395-1406. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0153)
History: Received June 14, 2011 , Accepted January 13, 2012
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2012, Vol. 55, 1395-1406. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0153)
History: Received June 14, 2011; Accepted January 13, 2012
Web of Science® Times Cited: 6

PurposeThe purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F0) during anterior–posterior stretching.

MethodThree materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm in 1-mm increments. Phonation onset pressure (Pon) and F0 at Pon were recorded for each length. Measurements were repeated as the models were relaxed in 1-mm increments back to their resting lengths, and tensile tests were conducted to determine the stress-strain responses of linear versus nonlinear models.

ResultsNonlinear models demonstrated a more substantial frequency response than did linear models and a more predictable pattern of F0 increase with respect to increasing length (although range was inconsistent across models). Pon generally increased with increasing vocal fold length for nonlinear models, whereas for linear models, Pon decreased with increasing length.

ConclusionNonlinear synthetic models appear to more accurately represent the human vocal folds than do linear models, especially with respect to F0 response.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by NIH Grant R01DC005788 and constituted the first author’s master’s thesis in the Department of Communication Disorders at Brigham Young University. Portions of this research were presented at the Acoustical Society of America Conference, held October 26–30, 2009, in San Antonio, TX; at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention, held November 18–20, 2010, in Philadelphia, PA; and at the Rehabilitation Sciences Sector Clinical Education and Research Day Conference, held at the University of Toronto on May 11, 2011.
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