Article  |   August 2012
Functional Brain Activation Differences in School-Age Children With Speech Sound Errors: Speech and Print Processing
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Susan Felsenfeld
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • Stephen J. Frost
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • W. Einar Mencl
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • Robert K. Fulbright
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • Elena L. Grigorenko
    Yale Child Study Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT
  • Nicole Landi
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • Ayumi Seki
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • Kenneth R. Pugh
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • Correspondence to Jonathan L. Preston: preston@haskins.yale.edu
  • Editor: Janna Oetting
    Editor: Janna Oetting×
  • Associate Editor: Marc Joanisse
    Associate Editor: Marc Joanisse×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosody / Language
Article   |   August 2012
Functional Brain Activation Differences in School-Age Children With Speech Sound Errors: Speech and Print Processing
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2012, Vol. 55, 1068-1082. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2011/11-0056)
History: Received March 1, 2011 , Revised August 4, 2011 , Accepted December 9, 2011
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2012, Vol. 55, 1068-1082. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2011/11-0056)
History: Received March 1, 2011; Revised August 4, 2011; Accepted December 9, 2011
Web of Science® Times Cited: 3

Purpose: To examine neural response to spoken and printed language in children with speech sound errors (SSE).

Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare processing of auditorily and visually presented words and pseudowords in 17 children with SSE, ages 8;6[years;months] through 10;10, with 17 matched controls.

Results: When processing spoken words and pseudowords, the SSE group showed less activation than typically speaking controls in left middle temporal gyrus. They also showed greater activation than controls in several cortical and subcortical regions (e.g., left superior temporal gyrus, globus pallidus, insula, fusiform, and bilateral parietal regions). In response to printed words and pseudowords, children with SSE had greater activation than controls in regions including bilateral fusiform and anterior cingulate. Some differences were found in both speech and print processing that that may be associated with children with SSE failing to show common patterns of task-induced deactivation and/or attentional resource allocation.

Conclusion: Compared with controls, children with SSE appear to rely more on several dorsal speech perception regions and less on ventral speech perception regions. When processing print, numerous regions were observed to be activated more for the SSE group than for controls.

Acknowledgments
Funding support for this research was provided by National Institutes of Health Grants T32HD7548 and 5P01HD001994 (both awarded to Haskins Laboratories) and 5R01HD048830 (awarded to Yale University). We thank research assistants Anish Kurian, Eleanor Tejada, Heatherly Carlson, and Angie Goen.
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