Development of Phonological Processing Skills in Children With Specific Language Impairment With and Without Literacy Delay: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study PurposeTo compare the development of phonological skills in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay and to examine whether kindergarten phonological skills could discriminate these 2 groups.MethodIn a longitudinal study, 8 children with SLI and literacy delay, 10 children with SLI and normal literacy, and 14 ... Article
Article  |   August 01, 2012
Development of Phonological Processing Skills in Children With Specific Language Impairment With and Without Literacy Delay: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Bart Boets
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
  • Pol Ghesquière
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
  • Inge Zink
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
  • Correspondence to Ellen Vandewalle, who is now affiliated with Code Lessius, Antwerpen, Belgium: ellen.vandewalle@lessius.eu
  • Editor: Janna Oetting
    Editor: Janna Oetting×
  • Associate Editor: Julie Dockrell
    Associate Editor: Julie Dockrell×
Article Information
Development / Normal Language Processing / Language Disorders / Specific Language Impairment / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Language
Article   |   August 01, 2012
Development of Phonological Processing Skills in Children With Specific Language Impairment With and Without Literacy Delay: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2012, Vol. 55, 1053-1067. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0308)
History: Received November 6, 2010 , Revised June 9, 2011 , Accepted November 29, 2011
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2012, Vol. 55, 1053-1067. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0308)
History: Received November 6, 2010; Revised June 9, 2011; Accepted November 29, 2011
Web of Science® Times Cited: 14

PurposeTo compare the development of phonological skills in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay and to examine whether kindergarten phonological skills could discriminate these 2 groups.

MethodIn a longitudinal study, 8 children with SLI and literacy delay, 10 children with SLI and normal literacy, and 14 typically developing children were studied from the last year of kindergarten to the start of Grade 3. A wide range of phonological tasks (phonological awareness [PA], verbal short-term memory [vSTM], and rapid automatized naming [RAN]) were administered yearly.

ResultsThe SLI group with literacy delay scored significantly lower than the typically developing children on almost all phonological tasks in all grades, whereas the SLI group with normal literacy scored significantly lower only on demanding PA and vSTM tasks. A combination of kindergarten PA and RAN skills could correctly classify 75% of the children with SLI. By including vSTM, the discriminatory value did not increase.

ConclusionsChildren with SLI and normal literacy at age 8;1 [years;months] continued to have difficulties with demanding PA and vSTM tasks. Children with SLI and poor PA and RAN in kindergarten were at high risk of developing literacy problems in a transparent orthography.

Acknowledgments
We are grateful to Intse Boey, Liesbet Cuyvers, Ester Dewaelheyns, Ellen De Wever, Joke Lauwers, Indra Lens, Sarah Lievens, Tinne Mertens, Sarah Saey, Liesbet Schouwaerts, and Tamara Van Eyken for their contribution to the data collection. We wish to acknowledge the rehabilitation centers, speech-language therapists, and the Vlaamse Vereniging voor Logopedisten [Flemish Union of Speech and Language Therapists] for assistance with the selection of the children with SLI as well as all the children, their parents, schools, and teachers for their commitment to this study.
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