Evaluating the Effort Expended to Understand Speech in Noise Using a Dual-Task Paradigm: The Effects of Providing Visual Speech Cues Purpose: Using a dual-task paradigm, 2 experiments (Experiments 1 and 2) were conducted to assess differences in the amount of listening effort expended to understand speech in noise in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A-only) modalities. Experiment 1 had equivalent noise levels in both modalities, and Experiment 2 equated speech ... Article
Article  |   February 2010
Evaluating the Effort Expended to Understand Speech in Noise Using a Dual-Task Paradigm: The Effects of Providing Visual Speech Cues
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Sarah Fraser
    Concordia University and the Center for Research in Human Development, Montréal, Québec, Canada
  • Jean-Pierre Gagné
    Université de Montréal and the Centre de Recherche de l’Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada
  • Majolaine Alepins
    Université de Montréal and the Centre de Recherche de l’Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada
  • Pascale Dubois
    Université de Montréal and the Centre de Recherche de l’Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada
  • Contact author: Sarah Fraser, Department of Psychology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H4B 1R6, Canada. E-mail: sfraser@live.concordia.ca.
  • © 2010 American Speech-Language-Hearing AssociationAmerican Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Acoustics / Hearing Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Hearing
Article   |   February 2010
Evaluating the Effort Expended to Understand Speech in Noise Using a Dual-Task Paradigm: The Effects of Providing Visual Speech Cues
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2010, Vol. 53, 18-33. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0140)
History: Received July 10, 2008 , Revised December 23, 2008 , Accepted June 5, 2009
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2010, Vol. 53, 18-33. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0140)
History: Received July 10, 2008; Revised December 23, 2008; Accepted June 5, 2009
Web of Science® Times Cited: 23

Purpose: Using a dual-task paradigm, 2 experiments (Experiments 1 and 2) were conducted to assess differences in the amount of listening effort expended to understand speech in noise in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A-only) modalities. Experiment 1 had equivalent noise levels in both modalities, and Experiment 2 equated speech recognition performance levels by increasing the noise in the AV versus A-only modality.

Method: Sixty adults were randomly assigned to Experiment 1 or Experiment 2. Participants performed speech and tactile recognition tasks separately (single task) and concurrently (dual task). The speech tasks were performed in both modalities. Accuracy and reaction time data were collected as well as ratings of perceived accuracy and effort.

Results: In Experiment 1, the AV modality speech recognition was rated as less effortful, and accuracy scores were higher than A only. In Experiment 2, reaction times were slower, tactile task performance was poorer, and listening effort increased, in the AV versus the A-only modality.

Conclusions: At equivalent noise levels, speech recognition performance was enhanced and subjectively less effortful in the AV than A-only modality. At equivalent accuracy levels, the dual-task performance decrements (for both tasks) suggest that the noisier AV modality was more effortful than the A-only modality.

Acknowledgments
Support for this study was provided by the Strategic Training Grant on Communication and Social Interaction in Healthy Aging from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Many thanks to Stéphane Denis (programmer at the Centre de Recherche en Neuropsychologie et Cognition, Département de Psychologie, Université de Montréal).
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