Animation of Graphic Symbols Representing Verbs and Prepositions: Effects on Transparency, Name Agreement, and Identification PurposeThe effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were evaluated in preschoolers of 3 age groups.MethodsA mixed-group design was used; in each age group, half of the children were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 orders of symbol formats. The 52 ... Article
Article  |   April 01, 2012
Animation of Graphic Symbols Representing Verbs and Prepositions: Effects on Transparency, Name Agreement, and Identification
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ralf W. Schlosser
    Northeastern University, Boston, MA
  • Howard Shane
    Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA
  • James Sorce
    Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA
  • Rajinder Koul
    Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock
  • Emma Bloomfield
    Northeastern University, Boston, MA
  • Lisa Debrowski
    Northeastern University, Boston, MA
  • Tim DeLuca
    Northeastern University, Boston, MA
  • Stephanie Miller
    Northeastern University, Boston, MA
  • Danielle Schneider
    Northeastern University, Boston, MA
  • Allison Neff
    Northeastern University, Boston, MA
  • Correspondence to Ralf W. Schlosser: r.schlosser@neu.edu
  • Editor: Janna Oetting
    Editor: Janna Oetting×
  • Associate Editor: Katherine Hustad
    Associate Editor: Katherine Hustad×
Article Information
Augmentative & Alternative Communication / Language
Article   |   April 01, 2012
Animation of Graphic Symbols Representing Verbs and Prepositions: Effects on Transparency, Name Agreement, and Identification
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2012, Vol. 55, 342-358. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0164)
History: Received June 14, 2010 , Revised December 20, 2010 , Accepted July 27, 2011
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2012, Vol. 55, 342-358. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0164)
History: Received June 14, 2010; Revised December 20, 2010; Accepted July 27, 2011
Web of Science® Times Cited: 11

PurposeThe effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were evaluated in preschoolers of 3 age groups.

MethodsA mixed-group design was used; in each age group, half of the children were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 orders of symbol formats. The 52 children were asked to guess the meaning of symbols and to identify a target symbol among foils given the spoken label.

ResultsAnimated symbols were more transparent than static symbols, although this was more pronounced for verbs. Animated verbs were named more accurately than static verbs, but there was no difference between animated and static prepositions. Verbs were identified more accurately compared with prepositions, but there was no difference between symbol formats. Older children guessed, named, and identified symbols more effectively than younger children.

ConclusionAnimation enhances transparency and name agreement, especially for verbs, which reduces the instructional burden that comes with nontransparent symbols. Animation does not enhance identification accuracy. Verbs are easier to identify than prepositions. A developmental effect was observed for each measure. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.

Acknowledgments
Parts of this article were presented at the 2009 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention in New Orleans, LA, and at the 2009 Annual International Technology and Persons With Disabilities Conference, Los Angeles, CA.
We extend our appreciation to the participating children, their parents for giving consent, and to the teachers and directors of the day care centers (Russell J. Call Children’s Center, The Children’s Center of Wakefield, and the Wellesley Community Children’s Center). Also, we wish to thank our other members of the research team in the Autism Language Program at Children’s Hospital Boston, including Emily Laubscher, Jennifer Abrahmson, Holly Fadie, and Suzanne Flynn.
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