Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Condition, Viscosity, and Volume on Pharyngeal and Upper Esophageal Sphincter Pressure and Temporal Measurements During Swallowing Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of trial (i.e., Trial 1 vs. Trial 2); viscosity (i.e., saliva, thin, nectar-thick, honey-thick, and pudding-thick water); volume (i.e., 5 mL vs. 10 mL); age (i.e., young vs. older adults); and gender on pharyngeal (i.e., upper and lower) and ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2009
Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Condition, Viscosity, and Volume on Pharyngeal and Upper Esophageal Sphincter Pressure and Temporal Measurements During Swallowing
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Susan G. Butler
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC
  • Andrew Stuart
    East Carolina University, Greeneville, NC
  • Donald Castell
    Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC
  • Gregory B. Russell
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine
  • Kenneth Koch
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine
  • Shannon Kemp
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine
  • Contact author: Susan G. Butler, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology Center for Voice and Swallowing Disorders, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157. E-mail: sbutler@wfubmc.edu.
Article Information
Swallowing, Dysphagia & Feeding Disorders / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   February 01, 2009
Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Condition, Viscosity, and Volume on Pharyngeal and Upper Esophageal Sphincter Pressure and Temporal Measurements During Swallowing
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2009, Vol. 52, 240-253. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2008/07-0092)
History: Received April 25, 2007 , Revised September 12, 2007 , Accepted May 28, 2008
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2009, Vol. 52, 240-253. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2008/07-0092)
History: Received April 25, 2007; Revised September 12, 2007; Accepted May 28, 2008
Web of Science® Times Cited: 50

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of trial (i.e., Trial 1 vs. Trial 2); viscosity (i.e., saliva, thin, nectar-thick, honey-thick, and pudding-thick water); volume (i.e., 5 mL vs. 10 mL); age (i.e., young vs. older adults); and gender on pharyngeal (i.e., upper and lower) and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressures, durations, and onsets (i.e., onset of upper pharyngeal pressures relative to onsets of UES relaxations and onset of lower relative to upper pharyngeal pressures).

Method Twenty-three young adults (M = 30 years) and 21 older healthy adults (M = 75 years) participated. Measurements were acquired with a 2.1-mm catheter during simultaneous manometric and endoscopic swallowing assessment. Participants contributed 18 swallows, affording a study total of 792 swallows for analyses.

Results There was no significant effect of trial on any measurement of pressure, duration, and onset (ps = .63, .39, and .71, respectively). It was found that viscosity, volume, age, and gender affected pressure, duration, and onset measurements (e.g., onset of upper pharyngeal pressures relative to onsets of UES relaxations) but in varying degrees relative to the location in the pharynx or UES and the type of measurement (e.g., pressure, onset).

Conclusions Manometric measurements vary with respect to age, gender, and bolus variables and interactions of each. Consideration of these variables is paramount in understanding normal and pathological swallowing if manometry is to develop as a quantitative adjunct to videofluoroscopic and endoscopic swallowing tools.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by a new investigators research grant from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation. This article was presented, in part, at the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Dysphagia Research Society, March 8, 2007, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
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