Spontaneous Regulation of Emotions in Preschool Children Who Stutter: Preliminary Findings PurposeEmotional regulation of preschool children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS) was assessed through use of a disappointing gift (DG) procedure (P. M. Cole, 1986; C. Saarni, 1984, 1992).MethodParticipants consisted of 16 CWS and CWNS (11 boys and 5 girls in each talker group) who were ... Article
Article  |   December 01, 2010
Spontaneous Regulation of Emotions in Preschool Children Who Stutter: Preliminary Findings
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Kia N. Johnson
    James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA
  • Tedra A. Walden
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN
  • Edward G. Conture
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN
  • Jan Karrass
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN
  • Contact author: Kia N. Johnson, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, James Madison University, HHS 1147, MSC 4304, Harrisonburg, VA 22801. E-mail: johns3kn@jmu.edu.
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Normal Language Processing / Speech
Article   |   December 01, 2010
Spontaneous Regulation of Emotions in Preschool Children Who Stutter: Preliminary Findings
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2010, Vol. 53, 1478-1495. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2010/08-0150)
History: Received July 28, 2008 , Revised March 19, 2009 , Accepted March 2, 2010
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2010, Vol. 53, 1478-1495. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2010/08-0150)
History: Received July 28, 2008; Revised March 19, 2009; Accepted March 2, 2010
Web of Science® Times Cited: 22

PurposeEmotional regulation of preschool children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS) was assessed through use of a disappointing gift (DG) procedure (P. M. Cole, 1986; C. Saarni, 1984, 1992).

MethodParticipants consisted of 16 CWS and CWNS (11 boys and 5 girls in each talker group) who were 3 to 5 years of age. After assessing each child’s knowledge of display rules about socially appropriate expression of emotions, the authors asked the children to participate in a DG procedure. The children received a desirable gift preceding the first free-play task and a disappointing gift preceding a second free-play task. Dependent variables consisted of participants' positive and negative expressive nonverbal behaviors exhibited during receipt of a desirable gift and disappointing gift as well as conversational speech disfluencies exhibited following receipt of each gift.

ResultsFindings indicated that CWS and CWNS exhibited no significant differences in amount of positive emotional expressions after receiving the desired gift; however, CWS—when compared with CWNS—exhibited more negative emotional expressions after receiving the undesirable gift. Furthermore, CWS were more disfluent after receiving the desired gift than after receiving the disappointing gift. Ancillary findings also indicated that CWS and CWNS had equivalent knowledge of display rules.

ConclusionFindings suggest that efforts to concurrently regulate emotional behaviors and that speech disfluencies may be problematic for preschool-age CWS.

Acknowledgments
This research was funded, in part, by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grants DC000523-13 and DC0000647-01A2, awarded to Edward G. Conture, and by National Institute on Child Health and Human Development Grant T32HD07226, awarded to Jan Karrass, Vanderbilt University. We thank Melanie Schuele and LeeAnn Golper for their helpful and insightful reviews and commentary of previous versions of this manuscript; Pamela Cole, Diane Carlson Jones, and Carolyn Saarni for their valued feedback in the construction of the knowledge of display rules task and the disappointing gift procedure; Hayley Arnold and Katerina Ntourou for their assistance with interjudge measurement reliability; and Geoff Coalson, Christine Coulter, and Marie Rozeboom for assisting with the data collection process. In addition, we extend our sincere appreciation to the child participants and their parents, whose involvement made this study possible.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access