A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Gender and Race on Voice Onset Time Twenty individuals participated in a study of Voice Onset Time (VOT) production. Participants included equal numbers of males and females and equal numbers of African Americans and Caucasian Americans. Each individual read a set of stimuli formed from the six stop consonants (/p/, /t/, /k/; /b/, /d/, /g/) combined with ... Research Note
Research Note  |   June 01, 1997
A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Gender and Race on Voice Onset Time
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • John Ryalls
    Department of Communicative Disorders University of Central Florida Orlando
  • Allison Zipprer
    Department of Communicative Disorders University of Central Florida Orlando
  • Penelope Baldauff
    Department of Communicative Disorders University of Central Florida Orlando
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Note
Research Note   |   June 01, 1997
A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Gender and Race on Voice Onset Time
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 1997, Vol. 40, 642-645. doi:10.1044/jslhr.4003.642
History: Received April 23, 1996 , Accepted January 16, 1997
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 1997, Vol. 40, 642-645. doi:10.1044/jslhr.4003.642
History: Received April 23, 1996; Accepted January 16, 1997

Twenty individuals participated in a study of Voice Onset Time (VOT) production. Participants included equal numbers of males and females and equal numbers of African Americans and Caucasian Americans. Each individual read a set of stimuli formed from the six stop consonants (/p/, /t/, /k/; /b/, /d/, /g/) combined with the three vowels /i/, /α/, and /u/. Their productions were measured for VOT. Considerably more prevoicing (i.e., negative VOT) for voiced stops was found in the present study in comparison with past studies. Statistically significant differences were found for both gender and race. These results suggest that the normative data presently available is probably inadequate because it does not accurately reflect the normal distribution of either gender or race within the American population.

Acknowledgments
We would like to extend our appreciation to the College of Health and Public Affairs and to the Division of Sponsored Research at the University of Central Florida for the intramural support that allowed us to acquire the equipment employed in this study. We appreciate the comments of the three anonymous reviewers and especially those of the associate editor on earlier versions of this work. Thanks are also due to Christine Brassard and Julius Fridriksson for their assistance in the preparation of this article. Finally, we would like to recognize the contribution of the unremunerated participants who made this research possible.
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