The Effects of Frequency-Altered Feedback on Stuttering Reply to Kalinowski, Rastatter, and Stuart (1998) Letter to the Editor
Letter to the Editor  |   June 01, 1998
The Effects of Frequency-Altered Feedback on Stuttering
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Roger J. Ingham
    University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Janis C. Ingham
    University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Anne K. Cordes
    University of Georgia Athens
  • Richard Moglia
    University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Peter Frank
    University of California, Santa Barbara
  • The authorship sequence reflects a posthumous acknowledgment to our friend and colleague, Peter Frank, who was also coauthor on the Ingham et al. (1997) paper. He died in June 1996.
    The authorship sequence reflects a posthumous acknowledgment to our friend and colleague, Peter Frank, who was also coauthor on the Ingham et al. (1997) paper. He died in June 1996.×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Speech / Letters to the Editor
Letter to the Editor   |   June 01, 1998
The Effects of Frequency-Altered Feedback on Stuttering
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 1998, Vol. 41, 513-515. doi:10.1044/jslhr.4103.513
History: Received October 10, 1997 , Accepted December 9, 1997
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 1998, Vol. 41, 513-515. doi:10.1044/jslhr.4103.513
History: Received October 10, 1997; Accepted December 9, 1997
Kalinowski, Rastatter, and Stuart (1998) comment on the interpretation and significance of four single-subject design investigations of frequency-altered feedback (FAF) that were published in Ingham, Moglia, Frank, Ingham, and Cordes (1997). We respond to the specific criticism that we misinterpreted our data and then to some of the larger issues raised by Kalinowski et al.
Ingham et al. arranged for four adults who stuttered to complete oral reading tasks and spontaneous speaking tasks during normal auditory feedback (NAF) and two FAF (+1 or −1 octave) conditions. Within each experiment, the subject spoke for a minimum of 12 min in each phase. If there was evidence of a response to FAF, the subject then continued to speak for a minimum of 45 min with FAF. Our study’s addition of spontaneous speech tasks and our use of at least 45 min of speech to evaluate a positive response to FAF were modest steps toward a more clinically significant evaluation of FAF than had been previously available. (Earlier studies had used only oral reading tasks and had used samples of not more than 2 min of speech in each condition.) It seemed to us especially critical to evaluate whether speakers would respond differently to relatively long periods of FAF than they do to relatively short periods of exposure because of the known changes that occur during extended periods of auditory masking (another altered-audition condition).
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