Effects of Feedback Frequency and Timing on Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of Speech Skills in Acquired Apraxia of Speech Purpose Two studies examined speech skill learning in persons with apraxia of speech (AOS). Motor-learning research shows that delaying or reducing the frequency of feedback promotes retention and transfer of skills. By contrast, immediate or frequent feedback promotes temporary performance enhancement but interferes with retention and transfer. These principles were ... Research Article
Research Article  |   October 01, 2008
Effects of Feedback Frequency and Timing on Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of Speech Skills in Acquired Apraxia of Speech
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Shannon N. Austermann Hula
    San Diego State University/University of California San Diego
  • Donald A. Robin
    San Diego State University/University of California San Diego
  • Edwin Maas
    San Diego State University/University of California San Diego
  • Kirrie J. Ballard
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Richard A. Schmidt
    University of California Los Angeles
  • Contact author: Shannon N. Austermann Hula, who is now with the VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15206. E-mail: shannon.hula@va.gov.
  • Donald A. Robin is now affiliated with the Human Performance Division, Research Imaging Center, departments of Neurology and Radiology and the Program in Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, and with the Honors College and College of Liberal and Fine Arts, The University of Texas, San Antonio.
    Donald A. Robin is now affiliated with the Human Performance Division, Research Imaging Center, departments of Neurology and Radiology and the Program in Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, and with the Honors College and College of Liberal and Fine Arts, The University of Texas, San Antonio.×
  • Edwin Maas is now affiliated with the Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences at the University of Arizona.
    Edwin Maas is now affiliated with the Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences at the University of Arizona.×
  • Kirrie J. Ballard is now affiliated with the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Australia.
    Kirrie J. Ballard is now affiliated with the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Australia.×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Apraxia of Speech & Childhood Apraxia of Speech / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   October 01, 2008
Effects of Feedback Frequency and Timing on Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of Speech Skills in Acquired Apraxia of Speech
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2008, Vol. 51, 1088-1113. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2008/06-0042)
History: Received February 28, 2006 , Revised July 12, 2007 , Accepted November 29, 2007
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2008, Vol. 51, 1088-1113. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2008/06-0042)
History: Received February 28, 2006; Revised July 12, 2007; Accepted November 29, 2007
Web of Science® Times Cited: 31

Purpose Two studies examined speech skill learning in persons with apraxia of speech (AOS). Motor-learning research shows that delaying or reducing the frequency of feedback promotes retention and transfer of skills. By contrast, immediate or frequent feedback promotes temporary performance enhancement but interferes with retention and transfer. These principles were tested in the context of a common treatment for AOS.

Method Two studies (N = 4, N = 2) employed single-subject treatment designs to examine acquisition and retention of speech skills in adults with AOS under different feedback conditions.

Results Reduced-frequency or delayed feedback enhanced learning in 3 participants with AOS. Feedback manipulation was not an influential variable in 3 other cases in which stimulus-complexity effects may have masked treatment effects.

Conclusions These findings demonstrate that individuals with AOS can benefit from structured intervention. They provide qualified support for reduction and delay of feedback, although interaction with other factors such as stimulus complexity or task difficulty needs further exploration. This study adds to the growing body of literature investigating the use of principles of motor learning in treating AOS and provides impetus for consideration of pre-treatment variables that affect outcome in treatment studies.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported, in part, by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) Pre-Doctoral Training Grant DC007361, a VA Pre-Doctoral Research Fellowship (both awarded to the first author), San Diego State University Foundation Grant GIA 0304 (awarded to the second author), and NIDCD Grant DC005698 (awarded to the fourth author).
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