Global Processing Speed in Children With Low Reading Ability and in Children and Adults With Typical Reading Ability: Exploratory Factor Analytic Models PurposeTo investigate processing speed as a latent dimension in children with dyslexia and children and adults with typical reading skills.MethodExploratory factor analysis (FA) was based on a sample of multigenerational families, each ascertained through a child with dyslexia. Eleven measures—6 of them timed—represented verbal and nonverbal processes, alphabet writing, and ... Article
Article  |   June 01, 2011
Global Processing Speed in Children With Low Reading Ability and in Children and Adults With Typical Reading Ability: Exploratory Factor Analytic Models
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Beate Peter
    University of Washington, Seattle
    University of Washington, Seattle
  • Mark Matsushita
    University of Washington, Seattle
    University of Washington, Seattle
  • Wendy H. Raskind
    University of Washington, Seattle
    University of Washington, Seattle
  • Correspondence to Beate Peter: bvpeter@u.washington.edu
  • Editor: Janna Oetting
    Editor: Janna Oetting×
  • Associate Editor: Marc Joanisse
    Associate Editor: Marc Joanisse×
Article Information
Development / Normal Language Processing / Language Disorders / Reading & Writing Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Language
Article   |   June 01, 2011
Global Processing Speed in Children With Low Reading Ability and in Children and Adults With Typical Reading Ability: Exploratory Factor Analytic Models
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2011, Vol. 54, 885-899. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2010/10-0135)
History: Received May 25, 2010 , Revised August 29, 2010 , Accepted October 5, 2010
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2011, Vol. 54, 885-899. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2010/10-0135)
History: Received May 25, 2010; Revised August 29, 2010; Accepted October 5, 2010
Web of Science® Times Cited: 4

PurposeTo investigate processing speed as a latent dimension in children with dyslexia and children and adults with typical reading skills.

MethodExploratory factor analysis (FA) was based on a sample of multigenerational families, each ascertained through a child with dyslexia. Eleven measures—6 of them timed—represented verbal and nonverbal processes, alphabet writing, and motor sequencing in the hand and oral motor system. FA was conducted in 4 cohorts (all children, a subset of children with low reading scores, a subset of children with typical reading scores, and adults with typical reading scores; total N = 829).

ResultsProcessing speed formed the first factor in all cohorts. Both measures of motor sequencing speed loaded on the speed factor with the other timed variables. Children with poor reading scores showed lower speed factor scores than did typical peers. The speed factor was negatively correlated with age in the adults.

ConclusionsThe speed dimension was observed independently of participant cohort, gender, and reading ability. Results are consistent with a unified theory of processing speed as a quadratic function of age in typical development and with slowed processing in poor readers.

Acknowledgments
These studies were supported by National Institute of Child Health and Development Grants P50 HD33812 and R01 HD054562 (Wendy H. Raskind, P. I.) and by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grant 05 T32 DC000033-18 (Beate Peter). We appreciate the expert help of many Department of Educational Psychology graduate students in administering the test battery. Hiep Nguyen and Ted Holzman provided computer support. Richard Wagner and Joseph Torgesen gave permission to use the prepublication measures of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). Ellen Wijsman, Elena Erosheva, and Hil Lyons provided helpful comments on statistical procedures. We thank the families for their willingness to devote the time necessary to participate in these studies.
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