Differentiating the Effects of Phonotactic Probability and Neighborhood Density on Vocabulary Comprehension and Production: A Comparison of Preschool Children With Versus Without Phonological Delays PurposeTo differentiate the effect of phonotactic probability from that of neighborhood density on a vocabulary probe administered to preschool children with or without phonological delays.MethodTwenty preschool children with functional phonological delays and 34 preschool children with typical language development completed a 121-item vocabulary probe in both an expressive and receptive ... Article
Article  |   August 01, 2010
Differentiating the Effects of Phonotactic Probability and Neighborhood Density on Vocabulary Comprehension and Production: A Comparison of Preschool Children With Versus Without Phonological Delays
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Holly L. Storkel
    University of Kansas, Lawrence
  • Junko Maekawa
    University of Kansas, Lawrence
  • Jill R. Hoover
    University of Kansas, Lawrence
  • Contact author: Holly L. Storkel, Department of Speech-Language-Hearing: Sciences & Disorders, University of Kansas, 3001 Dole Human Development Center, 1000 Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66045-7555. E-mail: hstorkel@ku.edu.
  • Jill R. Hoover is now with the Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Indiana University Bloomington.
    Jill R. Hoover is now with the Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Indiana University Bloomington.×
Article Information
Development / Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Language
Article   |   August 01, 2010
Differentiating the Effects of Phonotactic Probability and Neighborhood Density on Vocabulary Comprehension and Production: A Comparison of Preschool Children With Versus Without Phonological Delays
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2010, Vol. 53, 933-949. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/09-0075)
History: Received April 20, 2009 , Accepted October 8, 2009
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2010, Vol. 53, 933-949. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/09-0075)
History: Received April 20, 2009; Accepted October 8, 2009
Web of Science® Times Cited: 18

PurposeTo differentiate the effect of phonotactic probability from that of neighborhood density on a vocabulary probe administered to preschool children with or without phonological delays.

MethodTwenty preschool children with functional phonological delays and 34 preschool children with typical language development completed a 121-item vocabulary probe in both an expressive and receptive response format. Words on the vocabulary probe orthogonally varied on phonotactic probability and neighborhood density but were matched on age of acquisition, word frequency, word length, semantic set size, concreteness, familiarity, and imagability.

ResultsResults show a Phonotactic Probability × Neighborhood Density interaction with variation across groups. Specifically, the optimal conditions for typically developing children were rare phonotactic probability with sparse neighborhoods and common phonotactic probability with dense neighborhoods. In contrast, only rare phonotactic probability with sparse neighborhoods was optimal for children with phonological delays.

ConclusionsRare sound sequences and sparse neighborhoods may facilitate triggering of word learning for typically developing children and children with phonological delays. In contrast, common sound sequences and dense neighborhoods may facilitate configuration and engagement for typically developing children but not for children with phonological delays because of their weaker phonological and/or lexical representations.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants DC06545, DC08095, DC00052, DC009135, DC 05803, and HD02528. The following individuals contributed to stimulus creation, data collection, data processing, and reliability calculations: Teresa Brown, Jennie Fox, Andrea Giles, Stephanie Gonzales, Nicole Hayes, Shannon Rogers, Josie Row, Katie Shatzer, Maki Sueto, Courtney Winn, and Emily Zimmerman.
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