Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes PurposeThe purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of ... Article
Article  |   August 01, 2010
Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Stephanie A. Kays
    William S. Middleton Memorial VA Hospital, Madison, WI, and University of Wisconsin—Madison
  • Jacqueline A. Hind
    William S. Middleton Memorial VA Hospital and University of Wisconsin—Madison
  • Ronald E. Gangnon
    University of Wisconsin—Madison
  • JoAnne Robbins
    William S. Middleton Memorial VA Hospital and University of Wisconsin—Madison
  • Contact author: JoAnne Robbins, William S. Middleton Memorial VA Hospital, GRECC (11G), 2500 Overlook Terrace, Madison, WI 53705. E-mail: jrobbin2@wisc.edu.
Article Information
Swallowing, Dysphagia & Feeding Disorders / Speech
Article   |   August 01, 2010
Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2010, Vol. 53, 898-907. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/09-0048)
History: Received March 10, 2009 , Accepted December 7, 2009
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2010, Vol. 53, 898-907. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/09-0048)
History: Received March 10, 2009; Accepted December 7, 2009
Web of Science® Times Cited: 21

PurposeThe purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of swallowing difficulty.

MethodTwenty-two healthy adults were enrolled into 2 groups (ages 20–35 years and ages 65–82 years; 5 males and 6 females each). Maximum tongue strength (Pmax) and endurance (duration 50% of Pmax could be maintained) were measured twice at baseline and once postmeal. Subjects consumed half of a bagel with peanut butter, carrot sticks, and milk between measures.

ResultsAll subjects demonstrated reduced tongue strength and endurance postmeal. Young adults showed a greater decline in anterior tongue endurance compared with older adults (p = .05). There was no evidence that changes in tongue strength, perceived effort, or meal duration varied by age or gender. The 3 oldest subjects reported the highest effort and displayed signs of difficulty swallowing while dining.

ConclusionsYoung and old adults demonstrated reduced tongue strength and endurance after dining, but younger subjects showed greater declines in anterior tongue endurance, whereas older adults exhibited signs of swallowing difficulty.

Acknowledgments
This study was conducted in the Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center (GRECC) of the William S. Middleton Memorial VA Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin. This article is GRECC Manuscript #2008-22. Special thanks to Erich Luschei and Nancy Solomon for their consultation on study equipment and design, Nadine Connor for manuscript review, and Abby Duane for manuscript preparation.
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