Variations in Intensity, Fundamental Frequency, and Voicing for Teachers in Occupational Versus Nonoccupational Settings PurposeIn this study, the authors created a more concise picture of the vocal demands placed on teachers by comparing occupational voice use with nonoccupational voice use.MethodThe authors used National Center for Voice and Speech voice dosimetry databank to calculate voicing percentage per hour as well as average dB SPL and ... Article
Article  |   August 01, 2010
Variations in Intensity, Fundamental Frequency, and Voicing for Teachers in Occupational Versus Nonoccupational Settings
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Eric J. Hunter
    National Center for Voice and Speech, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City
  • Ingo R. Titze
    National Center for Voice and Speech, The University of Utah, and University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Contact author: Eric J. Hunter, Denver Center for the Performing Arts, National Center for Voice and Speech, 1101 13th Street, Denver, CO 80204. E-mail: eric.hunter@ncvs2.org.
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech
Article   |   August 01, 2010
Variations in Intensity, Fundamental Frequency, and Voicing for Teachers in Occupational Versus Nonoccupational Settings
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2010, Vol. 53, 862-875. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/09-0040)
History: Received February 25, 2009 , Accepted November 25, 2009
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2010, Vol. 53, 862-875. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/09-0040)
History: Received February 25, 2009; Accepted November 25, 2009
Web of Science® Times Cited: 47

PurposeIn this study, the authors created a more concise picture of the vocal demands placed on teachers by comparing occupational voice use with nonoccupational voice use.

MethodThe authors used National Center for Voice and Speech voice dosimetry databank to calculate voicing percentage per hour as well as average dB SPL and fundamental frequency (F0). Occupational voice use (9:00 a.m.–3:00 p.m., weekdays) and nonoccupational voice use (4:00 p.m.–10:00 p.m., weekends) were compared (57 teachers, 2 weeks each).

ResultsFive key findings were uncovered: (1) Similar to previous studies, occupational voicing percentage per hour is more than twice that of nonoccupational voicing; (2) teachers experienced a wide range of occupational voicing percentages per hour (30 ± 11% per hr); (3) average occupational voice was about 1 dB SPL louder than the nonoccupational voice and remained constant throughout the day; (4) occupational voice exhibited an increased pitch and trended upward throughout the day; and (5) some apparent gender differences were shown.

ConclusionsData regarding voicing percentages, F0, and dB SPL provide critical insight into teachers' vocal health. Further, because nonoccupational voice use is added to an already overloaded voice, it may add key insights into recovery patterns and should be the focus of future studies.

Acknowledgments
Funding for this work was provided by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grant 1 R01 DC04224. We thank the research team (both past and present) at the National Center for Voice and Speech with their many supporting roles (Dosimeter Team: Peter Popolo, Karen Rogge-Miller, Andrew Starr, Jan Svec, and Albert Worley). Thanks also to Laura M. Hunter for the technical review. Finally, we express appreciation to The University of Utah Office of the Vice President for Research for support of the NCVS.
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