Article  |   June 2010
Influence of Sound Immersion and Communicative Interaction on the Lombard Effect
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Maëva Garnier
    Institut Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, LAM, (UMR 7190: UPMC Univ Paris 06, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Ministère de la Culture), Paris, France; and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
  • Nathalie Henrich
    GIPSA Laboratory, Department of Speech and Cognition, Grenoble, France (UMR 5216: CNRS, Grenoble University)
  • Danièle Dubois
    Institut Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, LAM (UMR 7190: UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Ministère de la Culture), Paris, France
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Acoustics / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech
Article   |   June 2010
Influence of Sound Immersion and Communicative Interaction on the Lombard Effect
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2010, Vol. 53, 588-608. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0138)
History: Received July 9, 2008 , Revised January 20, 2009 , Accepted September 19, 2009
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2010, Vol. 53, 588-608. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0138)
History: Received July 9, 2008; Revised January 20, 2009; Accepted September 19, 2009
Web of Science® Times Cited: 14

Purpose: To examine the influence of sound immersion techniques and speech production tasks on speech adaptation in noise.

Method: In Experiment 1, we compared the modification of speakers' perception and speech production in noise when noise is played into headphones (with and without additional self-monitoring feedback) or over loudspeakers. We also examined how this sound immersion effect depends on noise type (broadband or cocktail party) and level (from 62 to 86dB SPL). In Experiment 2, we compared the modification of acoustic and lip articulatory parameters in noise when speakers interact or not with a speech partner.

Results: Speech modifications in noise were greater when cocktail party noise was played in headphones than over loudspeakers. Such an effect was less noticeable in broadband noise. Adding a self-monitoring feedback into headphones reduced this effect but did not completely compensate for it. Speech modifications in noise were greater in interactive situation and concerned parameters that may not be related to voice intensity.

Conclusions: The results support the idea that the Lombard effect is both a communicative adaptation and an automatic regulation of vocal intensity. The influence of auditory and communicative factors has some methodological implications on the choice of appropriate paradigms to study the Lombard effect.

Acknowledgments
We thank Lucie Bailly, Marion Dohen, Hélène Lœvenbruck, and Pauline Welby for their collaboration on a previous study that was used as an experimental basis for Experiment 2. We are also very grateful to Christophe Savariaux and Alain Arnal for their valuable help in Experiment 2. Last, we thank warmly the 10 speakers of Experiment 1 as well as the 3 speakers of Experiment 2, who kindly agreed to participate in this project, despite the discomfort of the noisy situations.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access