Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading in Deaf Children With Cochlear Implants PurposeTo explore the phonological awareness skills of deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and relationships with vocabulary and reading development.MethodForty-three deaf children with implants who were between 5 and 15 years of age were tested; 21 had been implanted at around 2.5 years of age (Early CI group), and 22 ... Article
Article  |   April 01, 2010
Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading in Deaf Children With Cochlear Implants
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Carol Johnson
    Centre for Neuroscience in Education, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • Usha Goswami
    Centre for Neuroscience in Education, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • Contact author: Usha Goswami, Centre for Neuroscience in Education, 184 Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 8PQ, United Kingdom. E-mail: ucg10@cam.ac.uk.
Article Information
Development / Hearing Disorders / Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Assistive Technology / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Hearing
Article   |   April 01, 2010
Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading in Deaf Children With Cochlear Implants
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2010, Vol. 53, 237-261. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0139)
History: Received July 10, 2008 , Revised March 19, 2009 , Accepted October 20, 2009
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2010, Vol. 53, 237-261. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0139)
History: Received July 10, 2008; Revised March 19, 2009; Accepted October 20, 2009
Web of Science® Times Cited: 55

PurposeTo explore the phonological awareness skills of deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and relationships with vocabulary and reading development.

MethodForty-three deaf children with implants who were between 5 and 15 years of age were tested; 21 had been implanted at around 2.5 years of age (Early CI group), and 22 had been implanted at around 5 years of age (Late CI group). Two control groups—a deaf hearing aided group (16 children) and a typically developing group of hearing children (19 children)—were also tested. All children received a battery of phonological processing tasks along with measures of reading, vocabulary, and speechreading. Analyses focus on deaf children within the normal IQ range (n = 53).

ResultsAge at cochlear implantation had a significant effect on vocabulary and reading outcomes when quotient scores were calculated. Individual differences in age at implant, duration of fit, phonological development, vocabulary development, auditory memory, visual memory, and speech intelligibility were all strongly associated with progress in reading for the deaf implanted children. Patterns differed somewhat depending on whether quotient scores or standard scores were used.

ConclusionsCochlear implantation is associated with development of the oral language, auditory memory, and phonological awareness skills necessary for developing efficient word recognition skills. There is a benefit of earlier implantation.

Acknowledgments
This work was funded by Health Foundation Grant 543/800 awarded to Usha Goswami. We are indebted to the many children and families who took part in the study. Their enthusiasm and motivation are much appreciated. We also thank the schools and the teachers of the deaf who enabled us to carry out the assessments. We are especially grateful to Kaukab Rajput at Great Ormond Street Hospital; Julie Brinton, Joint Head, South England Cochlear Implant Centre, University of Southampton; as well as other colleagues at St. Thomas' Hospital and at cochlear implant centers in Cambridge, Nottingham, and Guys for their support.
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