Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Volume, Bolus Viscosity, and Gustation on Swallowing Apnea Onset Relative to Lingual Bolus Propulsion Onset in Normal Adults The purpose of this study was to ascertain the normal relation of swallowing apnea (SA) onset relative to lingual bolus propulsion along with factors that may alter this relation. Forty adults, composed of 10 men and 10 women in each of 2 age groups (i.e., 20–30 and 63–79 years) participated. ... Research Article
Research Article  |   June 01, 2004
Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Volume, Bolus Viscosity, and Gustation on Swallowing Apnea Onset Relative to Lingual Bolus Propulsion Onset in Normal Adults
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Susan G. Hiss
    East Carolina University, Greenville, NC
  • Monica Strauss
    East Carolina University, Greenville, NC
  • Kathleen Treole
    East Carolina University, Greenville, NC
  • Andrew Stuart
    East Carolina University, Greenville, NC
  • Susan Boutilier
    Pitt Regional Medical Center, Greenville, NC
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: shiss@wfubmc.edu
  • Susan G. Hiss, PhD, who is now at the Department of Otolaryngology Center for Voice and Swallowing Disorders, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1034. E-mail: shiss@wfubmc.edu
Article Information
Swallowing, Dysphagia & Feeding Disorders / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   June 01, 2004
Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Volume, Bolus Viscosity, and Gustation on Swallowing Apnea Onset Relative to Lingual Bolus Propulsion Onset in Normal Adults
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2004, Vol. 47, 572-583. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2004/044)
History: Received March 21, 2003 , Accepted October 22, 2003
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2004, Vol. 47, 572-583. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2004/044)
History: Received March 21, 2003; Accepted October 22, 2003
Web of Science® Times Cited: 37

The purpose of this study was to ascertain the normal relation of swallowing apnea (SA) onset relative to lingual bolus propulsion along with factors that may alter this relation. Forty adults, composed of 10 men and 10 women in each of 2 age groups (i.e., 20–30 and 63–79 years) participated. SA onset was assessed during 5- and 20-ml bolus volumes of water and apple juice across 3 trials. The effects of age, gender, bolus volume, bolus viscosity, and gustation on SA onset relative to lingual bolus propulsion were examined. A significant interaction of Age × Gender × Volume was found. In general, older adults initiated SA onset earlier than young adults, and large boluses elicited an earlier SA onset than small boluses regardless of group. Young men demonstrated significantly later SA onset than the older men for large volumes; this difference was not observed for small volumes, nor was it found between young and older women. SA onset also was assessed during 5-ml bolus volumes of thin apple juice, thick apple juice, and applesauce across three trials. A significant main effect of viscosity was found revealing that SA onset was initiated later as bolus viscosity increased. Thus, the results of this investigation provided data on the relation of SA onset relative to lingual bolus propulsion in individuals with normal swallowing and how this relation changes as a function of age, gender, bolus volume, bolus viscosity, and gustation.

Acknowledgments
This research was presented in part at the 10th annual meeting of the Dysphagia Research Society, October 11–13, 2001, Albuquerque, NM.
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