Brain Correlates of Stuttering and Syllable Production Gender Comparison and Replication Research Article
EDITOR'S AWARD
Research Article  |   April 01, 2004
Brain Correlates of Stuttering and Syllable Production
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Roger J. Ingham
    University of California, Santa Barbara and University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
  • Peter T. Fox
    University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
  • Janis C. Ingham
    University of California, Santa Barbara and University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
  • Jinhu Xiong
    University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
  • Frank Zamarripa
    University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
  • L. Jean Hardies
    University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
  • Jack L. Lancaster
    University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: rjingham@speech.ucsb.edu
  • Contact author: Roger J. Ingham, PhD, Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. E-mail: rjingham@speech.ucsb.edu
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 01, 2004
Brain Correlates of Stuttering and Syllable Production
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2004, Vol. 47, 321-341. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2004/026)
History: Received May 16, 2003 , Accepted August 8, 2003
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2004, Vol. 47, 321-341. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2004/026)
History: Received May 16, 2003; Accepted August 8, 2003
Web of Science® Times Cited: 45

This article reports a gender replication study of the P. T. Fox et al. (2000)  performance correlation analysis of neural systems that distinguish between normal and stuttered speech in adult males. Positron-emission tomographic (PET) images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were correlated with speech behavior scores obtained during PET imaging for 10 dextral female stuttering speakers and 10 dextral, age- and sex-matched normally fluent controls. Gender comparisons were made between the total number of voxels per region significantly correlated with speech performance (as in P. T. Fox et al., 2000) plus total voxels per region that were significantly correlated with stutter rate and not with syllable rate.

Stutter-rate regional correlates were generally right-sided in males, but bilateral in the females. For both sexes the positive regional correlates for stuttering were in right (R) anterior insula and the negative correlates were in R Brodmann area 21/22 and an area within left (L) inferior frontal gyrus. The female stuttering speakers displayed additional positive correlates in L anterior insula and in basal ganglia (L globus pallidus, R caudate), plus extensive right hemisphere negative correlates in the prefrontal area and the limbic and parietal lobes. The male stuttering speakers were distinguished by positive correlates in L medial occipital lobe and R medial cerebellum. Regions that positively correlated with syllable rate (essentially stutter-free speech) in stuttering speakers and controls were very similar for both sexes.

The findings strengthen claims that chronic developmental stuttering is functionally related to abnormal speech-motor and auditory region interactions. The gender differences may be related to differences between the genders with respect to susceptibility (males predominate) and recovery from chronic stuttering (females show higher recovery rates during childhood).

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by Grants 1RO1MH60246-01, 1RO1DC036801-A1, and PO1MH/DA52176 from the National Institutes of Health and by Grant LM06858 from the National Library of Medicine. Special thanks are also due to Shawn Mitiken for assistance in preparation of the figures.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access