Using Visible Speech to Train Perception and Production of Speech for Individuals With Hearing Loss The main goal of this study was to implement a computer-animated talking head, Baldi, as a language tutor for speech perception and production for individuals with hearing loss. Baldi can speak slowly; illustrate articulation by making the skin transparent to reveal the tongue, teeth, and palate; and show supplementary articulatory ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 01, 2004
Using Visible Speech to Train Perception and Production of Speech for Individuals With Hearing Loss
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Dominic W. Massaro
    University of California, Santa Cruz
  • Joanna Light
    University of California, Santa Cruz
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: massaro@fuzzy.ucsc.edu
  • Contact author: Dominic W. Massaro, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064. E-mail: massaro@fuzzy.ucsc.edu
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 01, 2004
Using Visible Speech to Train Perception and Production of Speech for Individuals With Hearing Loss
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2004, Vol. 47, 304-320. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2004/025)
History: Received February 10, 2003 , Accepted July 21, 2003
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2004, Vol. 47, 304-320. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2004/025)
History: Received February 10, 2003; Accepted July 21, 2003
Web of Science® Times Cited: 46

The main goal of this study was to implement a computer-animated talking head, Baldi, as a language tutor for speech perception and production for individuals with hearing loss. Baldi can speak slowly; illustrate articulation by making the skin transparent to reveal the tongue, teeth, and palate; and show supplementary articulatory features, such as vibration of the neck to show voicing and turbulent airflow to show frication. Seven students with hearing loss between the ages of 8 and 13 were trained for 6 hours across 21 weeks on 8 categories of segments (4 voiced vs. voiceless distinctions, 3 consonant cluster distinctions, and 1 fricative vs. affricate distinction). Training included practice at the segment and the word level. Perception and production improved for each of the 7 children. Speech production also generalized to new words not included in the training lessons. Finally, speech production deteriorated somewhat after 6 weeks without training, indicating that the training method rather than some other experience was responsible for the improvement that was found.

Acknowledgments
The research and writing of this article were supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. CDA-9726363, Grant No. BCS-9905176, Grant No. IIS-0086107), the Public Health Service (Grant No. PHS R01 DC00236), and the University of California, Santa Cruz.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access