Factor Structure and Reliability of the Dutch Version of Seven Scales of the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired (CPHI) Purpose Seven scales of the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired (CPHI; M. E. Demorest & S. A. Erdman, 1987) were translated into Dutch: Maladaptive Behavior, Verbal Strategies, and Nonverbal Strategies (within the area of Communication Strategies) and Self-Acceptance, Acceptance of Loss, Stress, and Withdrawal (within the area of Personal ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 01, 2009
Factor Structure and Reliability of the Dutch Version of Seven Scales of the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired (CPHI)
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Lidwine B. Mokkink
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  • Dirk L. Knol
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  • Adriana A. Zekveld
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  • S. Theo Goverts
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  • Sophia E. Kramer
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  • Contact author: Lidwine B. Mokkink, EMGO Institute, VU University Medical Center, Department of ENT/Audiology, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, the Netherlands. E-mail: w.mokkink@vumc.nl.
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Hearing / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 01, 2009
Factor Structure and Reliability of the Dutch Version of Seven Scales of the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired (CPHI)
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2009, Vol. 52, 454-464. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2008/08-0036)
History: Received February 12, 2008 , Revised July 11, 2008 , Accepted September 11, 2008
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2009, Vol. 52, 454-464. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2008/08-0036)
History: Received February 12, 2008; Revised July 11, 2008; Accepted September 11, 2008
Web of Science® Times Cited: 10

Purpose Seven scales of the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired (CPHI; M. E. Demorest & S. A. Erdman, 1987) were translated into Dutch: Maladaptive Behavior, Verbal Strategies, and Nonverbal Strategies (within the area of Communication Strategies) and Self-Acceptance, Acceptance of Loss, Stress, and Withdrawal (within the area of Personal Adjustment).

Method This cross-sectional study evaluated the factor structure, internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and measurement error of the Dutch CPHI scales. In all, 399 adults with impaired hearing participated, and data on a subgroup of 40 patients were included in the test–retest analyses. The participants completed the questionnaire before routine clinical care or at home. Demographic data and data on pure-tone hearing thresholds were also collected.

Results Based on item factor analyses, we omitted 5 items, moved 3 items to different scales, and combined the Stress and Withdrawal scales. The resulting 6 scales, containing 52 items, showed good internal consistency (alphas between 0.81 and 0.94), good test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.78 and 0.86), and small standard error of measurement (between 0.28 and 0.46).

Conclusions The suggested revisions of the Dutch CPHI scales will increase their interpretability. Further research is needed to evaluate their usefulness for monitoring patients and in longitudinal studies by determining their responsiveness and minimal important change values.

Acknowledgments
This study was financially supported by the Nuts Ohra Foundation. We are grateful to Robert Westlake and Gwen Tauber for their help with the translation of the CPHI scales; Lucien Anteunis and Nele Corstjens from the University Hospital in Maastricht, the Netherlands, for their contribution to the data collection; and Esther Bijpost for her assistance. The CPHI copyright is held by Marilyn E. Demorest and Sue Ann Erdman; we received their permission to develop the Dutch version of seven CPHI scales.
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