Role of F0 and Amplitude in the Perception of Intervocalic Glottal Stops Glottal stops that occur in vowel-consonant-vowel context are often not realized as stops at all, but rather show voicing that is continuous throughout the glottal constriction gesture. Glottal articulations that are realized in this way are apparently marked by reductions in amplitude and fundamental frequency. In the present study measurements ... Research Article
Research Article  |   December 01, 1996
Role of F0 and Amplitude in the Perception of Intervocalic Glottal Stops
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • James M. Hillenbrand
    Western Michigan University Kalamazoo
  • Robert A. Houde
    RIT Research Corporation Rochester, NY
  • Contact Author: James M. Hillenbrand, Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008. Email: james.hillenbrand@wmich.edu
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Acoustics / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   December 01, 1996
Role of F0 and Amplitude in the Perception of Intervocalic Glottal Stops
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 1996, Vol. 39, 1182-1190. doi:10.1044/jshr.3906.1182
History: Received January 18, 1996 , Accepted July 16, 1996
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 1996, Vol. 39, 1182-1190. doi:10.1044/jshr.3906.1182
History: Received January 18, 1996; Accepted July 16, 1996

Glottal stops that occur in vowel-consonant-vowel context are often not realized as stops at all, but rather show voicing that is continuous throughout the glottal constriction gesture. Glottal articulations that are realized in this way are apparently marked by reductions in amplitude and fundamental frequency. In the present study measurements from naturally produced utterances containing the sequence /o2o/ (i.e., a glottal stop separating two identical vowels) were used to create a set of synthetic stimuli that varied in their F0 and amplitude contours. The utterances were resynthesized in six ways: (a) original pitch/original amplitude, (b) original pitch/flat amplitude, (c) flat pitch/original amplitude, (d) flat pitch/flat amplitude, (e) flat pitch/inverted amplitude, and (f) inverted pitch/flat amplitude. Results indicated that: (a) a dip in the pitch contour is nearly always sufficient to cue the presence of a glottal stop in the absence of any drop in amplitude, (b) a dip in the amplitude contour is usually sufficient to cue the presence of a glottal stop, and (c) signals with inverted contours were not heard as glottal stops, indicating that it is not merely an abrupt change that is needed to signal a glottal stop.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by a research grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIDCD 1-R01-DC01661). We are grateful to Michael Clark and Robert Erickson for comments on previous drafts and for many hours of critical listening, and to Terry Nearey for thoughtful comments on the interpretation of the findings. We are also grateful to Bruce Smith and three anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on a previous draft. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the June, 1994, meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
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