Individual Differences and the Reliability of 2F1-F2 Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emissions Effects of Time-of-Day, Stimulus Variables, and Gender Research Article
Research Article  |   December 01, 1996
Individual Differences and the Reliability of 2F1-F2 Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emissions
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Anthony T. Cacace
    Departments of Surgery and Neurology Albany Medical College Albany, NY
  • William A. McClelland
    Department of Surgery Albany Medical College Albany, NY
  • Jordan Weiner
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN
  • Dennis J. McFarland
    Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research New York State Health Department Albany, NY
  • Contact author: Anthony T. Cacace, PhD, Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, The Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208-3479.
    Contact author: Anthony T. Cacace, PhD, Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, The Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208-3479.×
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Hearing Disorders / Hearing / Research Articles
Research Article   |   December 01, 1996
Individual Differences and the Reliability of 2F1-F2 Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emissions
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 1996, Vol. 39, 1138-1148. doi:10.1044/jshr.3906.1138
History: Received April 5, 1996 , Accepted August 6, 1996
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 1996, Vol. 39, 1138-1148. doi:10.1044/jshr.3906.1138
History: Received April 5, 1996; Accepted August 6, 1996

Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) measured from the ear canal can be a sensitive tool to detect changes in cochlear function over time. However, if multiplemeasurement procedures are to be useful clinically, testing needs to be reliable and sources of variability within individuals should be known. Herein, the influence of time-of-day (TOD), stimulus frequency, stimulus sound pressure level (SPL), and gender were evaluated on 2f1-f2 DPOAE amplitude in 16 adult volunteers with normal hearing. The effects of oral temperature and resting-pulse rate were also assessed. This study demonstrated a TOD main effect, with a period approximating one cycle-per-day. The magnitude of this effect averaged less than one dB and was not dependent on stimulus (frequency or SPL) or participant variables (gender, oral temperature, or resting-pulse rate), nor was it synchronized to a particular point-in-time. Stimulus level and gender effects on DPOAEs across frequency were also observed. Using generalizability theory (GT), DP iso-level/frequency profiles (DPILFPs) were found to be reliable measures within-subjects over a contiguous 24-hour time period. Significant and reliable between-subject differences were also documented. This study demonstrates the influence of stimulus and participant variables, quantifies the within-subject reliability over a 24-hour time period, and confirms that significant and reliable between-subject differences exist on DPOAEs across frequency, SPL, and gender.

Acknowledgments
We thank Steven M. Parnes, MD, and the Division of Otolaryngology Research Fund for generous support during this study. We also thank Ray Tan, MD, for assistance in data collection and reduction, Julie Anne Kerwood, MS, CCC-A, Terry Kozera, MA, CCC-A, and Jeanette Burke-Daoust, MA, CCC-A, for performing audiological assessments, and Robert H. Margolis, PhD, for constructive comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. Invaluable secretarial and data management assistance were provided by Mrs. Victoria Junco, Mrs. Lynne Crowe, and Mrs. Dianna Wilder. Portions of these data were presented at the Seventeenth Annual Mid-Winter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, St. Petersburg Beach, FL, February 7, 1994, and at the Annual Meeting of the American Auditory Society, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, July 3, 1994.
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