Surface Forms and Grammatical Functions Past Tense and Passive Participle Use by Children With Specific Language Impairment Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2003
Surface Forms and Grammatical Functions
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Laurence B. Leonard
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Patricia Deevy
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Carol A. Miller
    Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
  • Leila Rauf
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Monique Charest
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Robert Kurtz
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Contact author: Laurence B. Leonard, Audiology and Speech Sciences, Heavilon Hall, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
    Contact author: Laurence B. Leonard, Audiology and Speech Sciences, Heavilon Hall, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.×
  • Corresponding author: E-mail: xdxl@purdue.edu
Article Information
Language Disorders / Specific Language Impairment / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   February 01, 2003
Surface Forms and Grammatical Functions
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2003, Vol. 46, 43-55. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2003/004)
History: Received February 1, 2002 , Accepted July 29, 2002
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2003, Vol. 46, 43-55. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2003/004)
History: Received February 1, 2002; Accepted July 29, 2002
Web of Science® Times Cited: 32

Children with specific language impairment (SLI) use past tense -ed in fewer obligatory contexts than younger normally developing children matched for mean length of utterance (MLU). In this study, the use of passive participle -ed (e.g., kissed in The frog got kissed by the kitty) as well as past tense -ed was examined in children with SLI, normally developing children matched for age (ND-A), and normally developing children matched for MLU (ND-MLU). The children with SLI used both past tense -ed and passive participle -ed in fewer obligatory contexts than both the ND-A and the ND-MLU children. Only the children with SLI had greater difficulty with past tense -ed than with passive participle -ed. The pattern of findings indicates that the surface properties of -ed cannot adequately account for the past tense -ed difficulty shown by the children with SLI. However, the fact that the children with SLI were less consistent than the ND-MLU children in using passive participle -ed suggests that either the surface properties of -ed are responsible for a portion of the difficulty or these children have a separate, non-tenserelated deficit in the area of verb morphology.

Acknowledgment
The research reported in this article was supported by Research Grant R01 00-458 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. We thank the children and families who participated and Amanda Burke, Megan Dunn, Kelly Dick, Katharine Graf, Kim Heminger, Gretchen Melpolder, Amanda Owen, and Le’Ann Scott for their assistance during this project.
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