Comparison of Perioral Reflex Modulation in the Upper and Lower Lip The spatiotemporal organization and specificity of the mechanically evoked, short latency penoral response (R1) was sampled from a group of normal adult humans. Perioral reflex activity was sampled during passive and active static force conditions in the presence of servo-controlled mechanical inputs to lip vermilion. Results confirmed that the sensorimotor ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 1996
Comparison of Perioral Reflex Modulation in the Upper and Lower Lip
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Steven M. Barlow
    Speech-Orofacial Physiology and Biomechanics Laboratories, Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences and Program in Neural Science Indiana University Bloomington
  • Paul T. Bradford
    Speech-Orofacial Physiology and Biomechanics Laboratories, Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences and Program in Neural Science Indiana University Bloomington
  • Contact author: S.M. Barlow, PhD, Speech-Orofacial Physiology and Biomechanics Laboratories, Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences and Program in Neural Science, Room 114 Speech and Hearing Science Building, 3rd and Jordan, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405.
    Contact author: S.M. Barlow, PhD, Speech-Orofacial Physiology and Biomechanics Laboratories, Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences and Program in Neural Science, Room 114 Speech and Hearing Science Building, 3rd and Jordan, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405.×
Article Information
Development / Swallowing, Dysphagia & Feeding Disorders / Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   February 01, 1996
Comparison of Perioral Reflex Modulation in the Upper and Lower Lip
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 1996, Vol. 39, 55-75. doi:10.1044/jshr.3901.55
History: Received January 27, 1995 , Accepted May 11, 1995
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 1996, Vol. 39, 55-75. doi:10.1044/jshr.3901.55
History: Received January 27, 1995; Accepted May 11, 1995

The spatiotemporal organization and specificity of the mechanically evoked, short latency penoral response (R1) was sampled from a group of normal adult humans. Perioral reflex activity was sampled during passive and active static force conditions in the presence of servo-controlled mechanical inputs to lip vermilion. Results confirmed that the sensorimotor apparatus of the lower face is very responsive to low level mechanical inputs and highly dependent on several factors including input site (upper vs. lower lip), amount of glabrous tissue stimulated (contactor array size), and task dynamics (passive vs. active subject-generated lip force). Arguments are presented to support the idea that several features of the peripheral sensory environment encoded by primary trigeminal afferents, including afferent gain, specificity, locus, and spatial summation, collectively provide inputs vital to higher order sensory relays in the development of a central representation and dynamic conformational map of perioral space. These sensorimotor features encoded by trigeminal afferents are presumed important for motor learning and maintenance of oromotor control during speech, suck, mastication and swallow, and gesture.

Acknowledgments
This study was supported in part by grants from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders R01 DC00365-08, RC Electronics (Santa Barbara, CA), and Neuro Logic, Incorporated (Bloomington, IN). Special gratitude is expressed to Amitava Biswas for developing UNIX graphics and digital signal processing programs.
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