Listening Effort and Fatigue in School-Age Children With and Without Hearing Loss Parents, audiologists, and educators have long speculated that children with hearing loss must expend more effort and, therefore, fatigue more easily than their peers with normal hearing when listening in adverse acoustic conditions. Until now, however, very few studies have been conducted to substantiate these speculations. Two experiments were conducted ... Research Article
Research Article  |   June 01, 2002
Listening Effort and Fatigue in School-Age Children With and Without Hearing Loss
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Candace Bourland Hicks, PhD
    Vanderbilt Bill Wilkerson Center for Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences Nashville, TN
  • Anne Marie Tharpe
    Vanderbilt Bill Wilkerson Center for Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences Nashville, TN
  • Contact author: Candace Bourland Hicks, PhD, Department of Communication Disorders, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th Street, Suite 2A300 MS 6073, Lubbock, TX, 79430-6073.
    Contact author: Candace Bourland Hicks, PhD, Department of Communication Disorders, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th Street, Suite 2A300 MS 6073, Lubbock, TX, 79430-6073.×
  • Corresponding author: E-mail: candace.hicks@ttmc.ttuhsc.edu
  • * Currently affiliated with Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX
    Currently affiliated with Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX×
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Hearing Disorders / School-Based Settings / Hearing / Research Articles
Research Article   |   June 01, 2002
Listening Effort and Fatigue in School-Age Children With and Without Hearing Loss
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2002, Vol. 45, 573-584. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2002/046)
History: Received January 3, 2001 , Accepted January 13, 2002
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2002, Vol. 45, 573-584. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2002/046)
History: Received January 3, 2001; Accepted January 13, 2002
Web of Science® Times Cited: 116

Parents, audiologists, and educators have long speculated that children with hearing loss must expend more effort and, therefore, fatigue more easily than their peers with normal hearing when listening in adverse acoustic conditions. Until now, however, very few studies have been conducted to substantiate these speculations. Two experiments were conducted with school-age children with mild-to-moderate hearing loss and with normal hearing. In the first experiment, salivary cortisol levels and a self-rating measure were used to measure fatigue. Neither cortisol measurements nor self-rated measures of fatigue revealed significant differences between children with hearing loss and their normalhearing peers. In the second experiment, however, a dual-task paradigm used to study listening effort indicated that children with hearing loss expend more effort in listening than children with normal hearing. Results are discussed in terms of clinical application and future research needs.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported in part by the Vanderbilt University Dissertation Enhancement Award to Candace Bourland Hicks. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Drs. Fred Bess, Daniel Ashmead, Wes Grantham, Todd Ricketts, and John Rieser at Vanderbilt University and Dr. Megan Gunnar and Bonny Donzella at University of Minnesota. We would also like to acknowledge the school systems, principals, and teachers, whose support was essential to completion of this project. In addition, we appreciate the parents and children who took part in this study.
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