Variability and Sequential Order of Consonant Normalization in Children With Speech Delay A source of discrepancy among attempts to establish a rank order in the development of English consonants has been the inability to cope concurrently with principled generalization and individual variability. This problem may be surmounted by survival analytic techniques. From the conversational speech of 24 children with speech delay (SD) ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 1999
Variability and Sequential Order of Consonant Normalization in Children With Speech Delay
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Frederic A. Gruber
    University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: gruberfa@hal.lamar.edu
  • Currently affiliated with Lamar University, Beaumont, TX.
    Currently affiliated with Lamar University, Beaumont, TX.×
  • Contact author: Frederic A. Gruber, PhD, Lamar University, Department of Communication Disorders, PO Box 10076, Beaumont, TX 77710.
    Contact author: Frederic A. Gruber, PhD, Lamar University, Department of Communication Disorders, PO Box 10076, Beaumont, TX 77710.×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 1999
Variability and Sequential Order of Consonant Normalization in Children With Speech Delay
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 1999, Vol. 42, 460-472. doi:10.1044/jslhr.4202.460
History: Received March 10, 1998 , Accepted July 23, 1998
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 1999, Vol. 42, 460-472. doi:10.1044/jslhr.4202.460
History: Received March 10, 1998; Accepted July 23, 1998

A source of discrepancy among attempts to establish a rank order in the development of English consonants has been the inability to cope concurrently with principled generalization and individual variability. This problem may be surmounted by survival analytic techniques. From the conversational speech of 24 children with speech delay (SD) recorded over 2 years, a Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival analysis provided a rank order of acquisition for all probabilities above .75. The rank ordering by chronological age uncovered an alignment by place and manner of articulation comparable to, but not identical with, the predictions of Jakobson (1941, 1968). When the derived normalization probabilities for the speech delayed children were lagged according to the strong delay hypothesis (Shriberg, Gruber, & Kwiatkowski, 1994), they were shown to converge with previous normative studies and the age of speech-sound determinations (Prather, Hedrick, & Kern, 1975; Sander, 1972). The convergence of results is interpreted both as an argument for generalizability and as support for the strong delay hypothesis.

Acknowledgments
This article was, in part, supported by Research Grant RO1 DC00496 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Lawrence D. Shriberg, principal investigator. This article is adapted from a PhD Dissertation at the University of Wisconsin–Madison under the supervision of Lawrence D. Shriberg. It benefited from the expertise of Robin Chapman, Raymond D. Kent, Colleen Moore, and Dolores (Dee) Vetter. Others who contributed are Diane Austin, Peter Flipsen Jr., Joan Kwiatkowski, Hye-Kyeung Seung, David Wilson, and three anonymous reviewers. Portions of this paper were presented at the 1997 Child Phonology Conference in Boulder, CO. Special thanks go to the parents or caretakers of the children who participated in this study.
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