Probability Estimates and Paths to Consonant Normalization in Children With Speech Delay Probable ages of normalization were calculated for 24 children with speech delay, using Kaplan-Meier analysis and a threshold score of 85% on the Percent of Consonants Correct, Percent of Consonants Correct-Adjusted, and Percent of Consonants Correct-Revised metrics. Simple formulas are provided that permit calculation of the likelihood that individual children ... Research Article
Research Article  |   April 1999
Probability Estimates and Paths to Consonant Normalization in Children With Speech Delay
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Frederic A. Gruber
    University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Currently affiliated with Lamar University, Beaumont, TX.
    Currently affiliated with Lamar University, Beaumont, TX.×
  • Contact author: Frederic A. Gruber, PhD, Lamar University, Department of Communication Disorders, PO Box 10076, Beaumont, TX 77710.
    Contact author: Frederic A. Gruber, PhD, Lamar University, Department of Communication Disorders, PO Box 10076, Beaumont, TX 77710.×
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: gruberfa@hal.lamar.edu
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   April 1999
Probability Estimates and Paths to Consonant Normalization in Children With Speech Delay
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 1999, Vol. 42, 448-459. doi:10.1044/jslhr.4202.448
History: Received March 10, 1998 , Accepted July 23, 1998
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 1999, Vol. 42, 448-459. doi:10.1044/jslhr.4202.448
History: Received March 10, 1998; Accepted July 23, 1998

Probable ages of normalization were calculated for 24 children with speech delay, using Kaplan-Meier analysis and a threshold score of 85% on the Percent of Consonants Correct, Percent of Consonants Correct-Adjusted, and Percent of Consonants Correct-Revised metrics. Simple formulas are provided that permit calculation of the likelihood that individual children with speech delay will normalize by a given age. The sex of a child was found to have no significant influence on age of normalization. Analysis revealed two different paths to normalization. In Path A, errors of deletion, substitution, and omission declined as correct productions increased. In Path B, common clinical distortions increased as deletions and substitutions decreased. The ages of more and less rapid phonological gain correspond to and partially explain the findings of Shriberg, Gruber, and Kwiatkowski (1994), who studied more severely involved children. Children who follow Path B are those who retain residual errors in their speech.

Acknowledgments
Preparation of this article was, in part, supported by Research Grant RO1 DC00496 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health. Lawrence D. Shriberg, principal investigator. This article was adapted from part of a PhD dissertation at the University of Wisconsin–Madison under the supervision of Lawrence D. Shriberg. Others who provided expertise and assistance are Diane Austin, Robin Chapman, Peter Flipsen Jr., Raymond D. Kent, Joan Kwiatkowski, Colleen Moore, Hye-Kyeung Seung, Dolores Vetter, David Wilson, and three anonymous reviewers. A debt of gratitude is owed to the children and their parents or caretakers who participated in this study. Portions of this paper were presented at the 1997 American Speech- Language-Hearing Association annual convention.
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