Effect of Frequency-Altered Feedback on Stuttering Frequency at Normal and Fast Speech Rates The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the magnitude and direction of the frequency shift of frequency-altered auditory feedback (FAF) on stuttering frequency at both normal and fast speech rates. Twelve adult male and 2 adult female subjects who stutter read 10 different passages at either ... Research Article
Research Article  |   December 01, 1994
Effect of Frequency-Altered Feedback on Stuttering Frequency at Normal and Fast Speech Rates
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Stephanie Hargrave
    School of Human Communication Disorders, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
  • Joseph Kalinowski
    School of Human Communication Disorders, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
  • Andrew Stuart
    Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
  • Joy Armson
    School of Human Communication Disorders, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
  • Kathleen Jones
    State University of New York at Geneseo
  • Contact author: Joseph Kalinowski, PhD, School of Human Communication Disorders, Dalhousie University, 5599 Fenwick Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1R2.
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   December 01, 1994
Effect of Frequency-Altered Feedback on Stuttering Frequency at Normal and Fast Speech Rates
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 1994, Vol. 37, 1313-1319. doi:10.1044/jshr.3706.1313
History: Received April 5, 1994 , Accepted June 27, 1994
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 1994, Vol. 37, 1313-1319. doi:10.1044/jshr.3706.1313
History: Received April 5, 1994; Accepted June 27, 1994

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the magnitude and direction of the frequency shift of frequency-altered auditory feedback (FAF) on stuttering frequency at both normal and fast speech rates. Twelve adult male and 2 adult female subjects who stutter read 10 different passages at either a normal or fast speech rate under nonaltered auditory feedback (NAF) and each of four FAF conditions in which the feedback signal was shifted: up one-half octave; up one octave; down one-half octave; and down one octave. Mean stuttering frequency for NAF was significantly higher than mean stuttering frequencies for all FAF conditions (p< 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the FAF conditions (p>0.05). Subjects exhibited significantly more disfluencies under the fast speech rate condition relative to the normal speech rate condition. Future research should examine the relationship between frequency shifts of less than one-half octave and stuttering amelioration.

Acknowledgments
All authors are considered equal contributors to this paper. Portions of this paper were presented at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Annual Convention, Anaheim, CA, November, 20, 1993. The authors would like to thank Dr. Walter B. Green, Director of the School of Human Communication Disorders, Dalhousie University, for his continued support of our research. We would also like to thank Ben C. Watson, Peter Howell, and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful editorial comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. The third author is supported by the Medical Research Council of Canada and the Killam Trusts, Dalhousie University. Preparation of this paper was supported in part by NIH Grant DC-00121 awarded to Haskins Laboratories.
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