The Effects of Contextualization on Fluency in Three Groups of Children This study investigated the effects of contextualization on fluency in 12 school-age children who stutter (CWS), 11 children with language impairment (CLI), and 12 children with normally developing fluency skills (CNF). Participants in the study were between the ages of 8 and 12 years and were matched for age and ... Research Article
Research Article  |   June 01, 2001
The Effects of Contextualization on Fluency in Three Groups of Children
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Lisa Scott Trautman, PhD
    Department of Communicative Disorders and Sciences Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount, Box 75, Wichita, KS 67260-0075
  • E. Charles Healey
    Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders University of Nebraska-Lincoln
  • Janet A. Norris
    Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders Louisiana State University Baton Rouge
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: lisa.scott@wichita.edu
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Language Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   June 01, 2001
The Effects of Contextualization on Fluency in Three Groups of Children
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2001, Vol. 44, 564-576. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2001/044)
History: Received March 30, 1999 , Accepted February 7, 2001
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 2001, Vol. 44, 564-576. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2001/044)
History: Received March 30, 1999; Accepted February 7, 2001
Web of Science® Times Cited: 4

This study investigated the effects of contextualization on fluency in 12 school-age children who stutter (CWS), 11 children with language impairment (CLI), and 12 children with normally developing fluency skills (CNF). Participants in the study were between the ages of 8 and 12 years and were matched for age and sex. Four discourse samples were elicited by asking participants to (a) generate two scripts related to cooking and (b) retell two stories. Having objects or pictures immediately available contextualized a cooking task and a retelling task; another set of cooking and retelling tasks were decontextualized. Moments of disfluency were identified and coded for three primary categories of disfluency: stutteringtype, normal-type, and mazing. For CWS, a significant reduction in frequency of stuttering was noted in the contextualized script generation, and mazing occurred at a significantly higher frequency than did stuttering-type or normal-type disfluencies across the four tasks. For all three groups, both decontextualized conditions produced greater frequencies of normal-type disfluency and mazing. In addition, narrative retelling tasks yielded higher frequencies of disfluency than did the two cooking scripts.

Acknowledgments
This paper represents a portion of the dissertation of the first author under the direction of the second author at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Data collection was supported by a University of Nebraska–Lincoln Research Council Grant-in-Aid LWT 1034193001, awarded to the second author. The authors wish to thank Dr. Merrilyn Gow and two anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments on the original manuscript and Dr. Tricia Zebrowski for her considerable editorial guidance and support. We also express appreciation to the members of the dissertation committee (Drs. David Beukelman, Thomas Carrell, and Ellen Weissinger) and to Kristin Chmela, who was key in recruitment of participants and data collection. Gratitude is also expressed to others who contributed in various ways to data collection and analysis: Dr. Paul Hoffman, Carrie Vitko, Michelle Wilson, Marie Lukens, Irit Gat, Craig Enders, and the teachers/staff at Riley and Hartley Elementary Schools in Lincoln, Nebraska. Finally, we sincerely thank the children and families for their participation in this research project.
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