Morphological Analyses of the Human Tongue Musculature for Three-Dimensional Modeling Skilled movements of the tongue in speech articulation reflect complex formation of the tongue musculature, although its description in the anatomical literature is rather limited for developing a realistic computational model of the tongue. This study presents detailed descriptions of the muscular structure of the human tongue based on macroscopic ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2001
Morphological Analyses of the Human Tongue Musculature for Three-Dimensional Modeling
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Hironori Takemoto
    Laboratory of Physical Anthropology Graduate School of Science Kyoto University Kyoto, Japan
  • Contact author: Hironori Takemoto, PhD, Information Science Division, Advanced Telecommunication Research Institute International, 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan. Email: takemoto@isd.atr.co.jp
  • Currently affiliated with the Information Science Division of Advanced Telecommunication Research Institute International, Kyoto, Japan
    Currently affiliated with the Information Science Division of Advanced Telecommunication Research Institute International, Kyoto, Japan×
Article Information
Professional Issues & Training / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   February 01, 2001
Morphological Analyses of the Human Tongue Musculature for Three-Dimensional Modeling
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2001, Vol. 44, 95-107. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2001/009)
History: Received January 31, 2000 , Accepted September 11, 2000
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2001, Vol. 44, 95-107. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2001/009)
History: Received January 31, 2000; Accepted September 11, 2000
Web of Science® Times Cited: 88

Skilled movements of the tongue in speech articulation reflect complex formation of the tongue musculature, although its description in the anatomical literature is rather limited for developing a realistic computational model of the tongue. This study presents detailed descriptions of the muscular structure of the human tongue based on macroscopic and microscopic observations and provides threedimensional schemata of the tongue musculature. Histologic examination revealed that the tongue consists of five strata, stacked along the courses of the fibers of the genioglossus muscle in proximal-distal directions. This stratum structure exists in the entire tongue tissue, indicating that the lingual musculature can be divided into the inner and outer regions. The former consisted of the "stem" and "core," and the latter of the "cover" and "fringe." In gross dissection, the tongue was cut into wedge-like blocks along the course of the genioglossus muscle to examine muscle fiber arrangement. Using this approach, it was determined that serial repetitions of "structural units" composed the inner musculature of the tongue. Each unit consisted of a pair of thin muscle fiber laminae; one was composed of the genioglossus and vertical muscles, and the other of the transverse muscle. In the apex, the laminae lacked the fibers of the genioglossus. These findings have been incorporated in three-dimensional schemata of the tongue musculature.

Acknowledgments
The author is grateful to Professor Hidemi Ishida and Associate Professor Masato Nakatsukasa of Kyoto University for guiding and supporting the study and to Associate Professor Sugio Hayama of Kansai Medical University for providing all the materials and for helpful comments for conducting this study. The author also thanks Professor Kayo Inaba of Kyoto University and Dr. Miyuki Kobara of the Second Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine for technical support in the histologic examination. Gratitude is owed to Professor Takeshi Kaneko, Mr. Takahiro Furuta, and Mr. Akira Uesugi of the Department of Morphological Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University for taking photographs of preparations. The author would like to give special thanks to Dr. Kiyoshi Honda of ATR Human Information Processing Research Laboratories for helpful comments and thoughtful discussions throughout the writing of the manuscript.
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