Accuracy of Metamemory After Traumatic Brain Injury Predictions During Verbal Learning Research Article
Research Article  |   October 2000
Accuracy of Metamemory After Traumatic Brain Injury
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Mary R.T. Kennedy
    University of Minnesota Minneapolis
  • Kathryn M. Yorkston
    University of Washington Seattle
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: kenne047@tc.umn.edu
  • Contact author: Mary R.T. Kennedy, PhD, Department of Communication Disorders, University of Minnesota, 115 Shevlin Hall, 164 Pillsbury Drive, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455. Email: kenne047@tc.umn.edu
    Contact author: Mary R.T. Kennedy, PhD, Department of Communication Disorders, University of Minnesota, 115 Shevlin Hall, 164 Pillsbury Drive, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455. Email: kenne047@tc.umn.edu×
Article Information
Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Traumatic Brain Injury / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   October 2000
Accuracy of Metamemory After Traumatic Brain Injury
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2000, Vol. 43, 1072-1086. doi:10.1044/jslhr.4305.1072
History: Received March 29, 2000 , Accepted June 13, 2000
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2000, Vol. 43, 1072-1086. doi:10.1044/jslhr.4305.1072
History: Received March 29, 2000; Accepted June 13, 2000

The primary intent of this study was to investigate the metamemory monitoring abilities of adult survivors of at least moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) during a verbal-learning activity. Eighteen survivors and 18 non-injured control participants made judgment-of-learning (JOL) predictions of their recall ability immediately after studying 3 lists of noun-pairs or after a slight delay. A secondary intent of this study was to determine if verbal retrieval attempts would enhance predictive accuracy. One half of participants made retrieval attempts during the second and third list-learning task, and the other half made retrieval attempts during the third list-learning task only. Measures of the correlation between JOL predictions and recall accuracy revealed that survivors were as accurate as controls when making delayed predictions and were less accurate when making immediate predictions. This occurred regardless of retrieval attempts. Absolute measures that compared mean JOL ratings to overall recall revealed that the survivor group was well-calibrated when making delayed JOL predictions but overestimated when making immediate JOL predictions. The non-injured control group underestimated when making both types of predictions. However, within-group variability was high. These findings are compared to those from studies that investigated metamemory beliefs in which survivors' ratings were compared to family-member ratings. Clinical implications for basing executive decisions about compensatory strategies on delayed and immediate predictions of future recall are discussed. Additionally, a rationale is provided for the use of both relative and absolute measures of predictive accuracy in metamemory studies involving neurological clinical populations.

Acknowledgments
This study was conducted in partial fulfillment of the first author's doctoral dissertation in the Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle. Both authors are grateful to Margaret Rogers and Thomas Nelson for their input in the development phase of this project and to Edward Carney for his statistical consultation. The authors extend a heartfelt thanks to Patricia Mitsuda and other clinicians for assisting with the recruitment of participants. A special thanks is given to all the participants who willingly gave of their time. Portions of this study were presented at the American Speech-LanguageHearing Convention, 1996, Seattle, WA.
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