Multidimensional Scaling of Nasal Voice Quality Listeners judged the dissimilarity of pairs of synthesized nasal voices that varied on 3 dimensions. Separate nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) solutions were calculated for each listener and the group. Similar 3-dimensional solutions were derived for the group and each of the listeners, with the group MDS solution accounting for 83% ... Research Article
Research Article  |   August 01, 2000
Multidimensional Scaling of Nasal Voice Quality
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Richard I. Zraick
    University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little Rock, AR
  • Julie M. Liss
    Arizona State University Tempe, AZ
  • Michael F. Dorman
    Arizona State University Tempe, AZ
  • James L. Case
    Arizona State University Tempe, AZ
  • Leonard L. LaPointe
    Arizona State University Tempe, AZ
  • Stephen P. Beals
    Southwest Craniofacial Center Phoenix, AZ
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Voice Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   August 01, 2000
Multidimensional Scaling of Nasal Voice Quality
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2000, Vol. 43, 989-996. doi:10.1044/jslhr.4304.989
History: Received April 9, 1999 , Accepted December 14, 1999
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2000, Vol. 43, 989-996. doi:10.1044/jslhr.4304.989
History: Received April 9, 1999; Accepted December 14, 1999

Listeners judged the dissimilarity of pairs of synthesized nasal voices that varied on 3 dimensions. Separate nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) solutions were calculated for each listener and the group. Similar 3-dimensional solutions were derived for the group and each of the listeners, with the group MDS solution accounting for 83% of the total variance in listeners' judgments. Dimension 1 ("Nasality") accounted for 54% of the variance, Dimension 2 ("Loudness") for 18% of the variance, and Dimension 3 ("Pitch") for 11% of the variance. The 3 dimensions were significantly and positively correlated with objective measures of nasalization, intensity, and fundamental frequency. The results of this experiment are discussed in relation to other MDS studies of voice perception, and there is a discussion of methodological issues for future research.

Acknowledgments
This paper is based in part on a doctoral dissertation completed by the first author while at Arizona State University, under the direction of the second author. Special thanks for statistical consulting to Levent Dumenci of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Thanks also to the student clinicians at Arizona State University who participated in the listening tasks.
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