Effect of Microphone Type and Placement on Voice Perturbation Measurements This study was conducted to explore the effects of microphone type (dynamic vs. condenser) and pattern (omnidirectional vs. cardioid) on the extraction of voice perturbation measures for sustained phonation. Also of interest were the effects of distance and angle between the source and the microphone. Four professional-grade and two consumer-grade ... Research Article
Research Article  |   December 01, 1993
Effect of Microphone Type and Placement on Voice Perturbation Measurements
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ingo R. Titze
    Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, and National Center for Voice and Speech The University of Iowa Iowa City and The Recording and Research Center The Denver Center for the Performing Arts Denver, CO
  • William S. Winholtz
    The Recording and Research Center The Denver Center for the Performing Arts Denver, CO
  • Contact author: Ingo R. Titze, National Center for Voice and Speech, Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, The University of Iowa, 330 WJSHC, Iowa City, IA 52242-1012.
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   December 01, 1993
Effect of Microphone Type and Placement on Voice Perturbation Measurements
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 1993, Vol. 36, 1177-1190. doi:10.1044/jshr.3606.1177
History: Received December 28, 1992 , Accepted July 2, 1993
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 1993, Vol. 36, 1177-1190. doi:10.1044/jshr.3606.1177
History: Received December 28, 1992; Accepted July 2, 1993

This study was conducted to explore the effects of microphone type (dynamic vs. condenser) and pattern (omnidirectional vs. cardioid) on the extraction of voice perturbation measures for sustained phonation. Also of interest were the effects of distance and angle between the source and the microphone. Four professional-grade and two consumer-grade microphones were selected for analysis. Synthesized phonation with different amplitude and frequency modulations at fundamental frequencies of 100 Hz and 300 Hz were presented over a loudspeaker. Human phonation was also included to test the validity of loudspeaker presentations. Three microphone distances (4 cm, 30 cm, 1 m) and three angles (0°, 45°, 90°) were used for microphone placement. Among the professional grade microphones, the cardioid condenser type had the smallest effect on perturbation measures. In general, condenser types gave better results than dynamic types. Microphones with an unbalanced output did not perform as well as those with balanced outputs. Microphone sensitivity and distance had the largest effect on perturbation measures, making it difficult to resolve normal vocal jitter at anything but a few centimeters from the mouth. Angle had little effect for short distances, but a greater effect for longer distances. These conclusions are preliminary because the sampling of microphones, distances, and signal types was very coarse. The study serves only to chart the course for future work.

Acknowledgment
This study was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Hearth, Grant No. R01 DC00387-04. The authors wish to thank Martin Rothenberg and Ron Scherer for technical assistance, Chwen-Geng Guo, Larry Brown, and Mitch Wolfe for assistance in computer analysis, and Pamela Rios and Julie Lemke for assistance in manuscript preparation.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access