A Comparative Study of Two Acoustic Measures of Hypernasality PurposeThis study aimed to compare 2 quantitative acoustic measures of nasality in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and healthy controls using formalized perceptual assessment as a guide.MethodFifty participants (23 children with CLP and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls) aged between 4 and 12 years produced a variety ... Article
Article  |   December 01, 2009
A Comparative Study of Two Acoustic Measures of Hypernasality
 
Author Notes
  • Contact author: Adam P. Vogel, University of Melbourne, Centre for Neuroscience, 7/21 Victoria Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia. E-mail: avogel@cogstate.com.
  • Adam P. Vogel is also with the Bruce Lefroy Center for Genetic Health Research, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
    Adam P. Vogel is also with the Bruce Lefroy Center for Genetic Health Research, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.×
    Hasherah M. Ibrahim is now with the Department of Audiology and Speech Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
    Hasherah M. Ibrahim is now with the Department of Audiology and Speech Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.×
    Sheena Reilly is now also with the Healthy Development Theme, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
    Sheena Reilly is now also with the Healthy Development Theme, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Voice Disorders / Hearing & Speech Perception / Acoustics / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech
Article   |   December 01, 2009
A Comparative Study of Two Acoustic Measures of Hypernasality
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2009, Vol. 52, 1640-1651. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0161)
History: Received August 4, 2008 , Revised November 19, 2008 , Accepted March 11, 2009
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2009, Vol. 52, 1640-1651. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0161)
History: Received August 4, 2008; Revised November 19, 2008; Accepted March 11, 2009
Web of Science® Times Cited: 8

PurposeThis study aimed to compare 2 quantitative acoustic measures of nasality in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and healthy controls using formalized perceptual assessment as a guide.

MethodFifty participants (23 children with CLP and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls) aged between 4 and 12 years produced a variety of high and low vowels that allowed perceptual ratings of nasal resonance severity as well as acoustic analysis of spectral changes. Two objective measures of nasality were used: 1/3 octave spectra analysis and the voice low tone high tone ratio. Each respective technique has been evaluated in previous research, and their potential as an effective means of detecting changes in nasal resonance has been demonstrated.

ResultsOnly 1/3 octave spectra analysis differentiated between participants with hypernasal speech and those perceived to have normal nasal resonance. Significant differences were also observed between varying levels of perceived severity on vowels within nonnasalized phonemic environments (/pit/, /tip/).

ConclusionsPerceptual judgment remains the primary means of evaluating levels of nasality in children with CLP. However, the development and validation of easy-to-use objective techniques remains an important goal for effective clinical and empirical practice.

Acknowledgments
We would like to acknowledge the raters, Cik Husmeela Hussain (HH) and Puan Shahrina Mohd Zawawi (SZ), for their help on the perceptual analysis and the support of the staff at Hospital Besar Kuala Lumpur and Sekolah Kebangsaan Setapak in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. We would also like to thank Angela Morgan for her initial suggestion to use spectral analysis, Obioha Ukoumunne for his statistical advice, Paul Boersma for his PRAAT script for the one-third octave analysis, and Guo-She Lee for communicating with us on the voice high tone low tone ratio. Lastly, we thank Mary Hardin-Jones for thoughts and recommendations on earlier versions of this article.
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